Scopus

EXPORT DATE:15 Jun 2020

Mohammadi Mohammadabadi, A., Hosseinifard, S.J., Sedaghati, N., Nikooei Dastjerdi, M. Pistachio (Pistachia vera L.) seedling growth response to irrigation method and volume in Iran 2020) Agricultural Water Management, 240, art. no. 106287,https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85085739373&doi=10.1016%2fj.agwat.2020.106287&partnerID=40&md5=cd54eeec889f245d72f5279106de7f60

DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2020.106287

AFFILIATIONS: Pistachio Research Center, Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Agriculture Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: In Iran, pistachio (Pistachia vera L.) orchards are mostly irrigated by surface irrigation. In this research, the border surface irrigation method was compared to five different irrigation systems. The research was carried out for four years at the Pistachio Research Center of Iran (IPRC) in Rafsanjan. A split-plot design was used with six irrigation systems with main plots; surface, drip, subsurface porous pipe, bubbler, T-Tape, and pottery cylinder, and three subplots of 10%, 20% and 30% Class A Evaporation Pan (685, 1370 and 2055 m3 ha−1 year−1). Generally, seedling performance increased with level of irrigation. The best results for seedling height, trunk diameter, leaf number and leaf area were with the pottery cylinder and drip systems and the 30% irrigation treatment; the poorest results were with the surface and T-Tape systems and the 10% irrigation treatment. The highest salinity was with the subsurface system and the 10% irrigation treatment and the T-Tape system with the 10% and 20% irrigation treatments. The lowest salinity with the lowest irrigation treatment was with the pottery cylinder and drip system with the 20% and 30% irrigation treatments. The pottery cylinder system had the highest common thin roots at 60−90 cm, and the drip system had many thin roots at 30−60 cm. Overall, the pottery cylinder and drip systems were best for pistachio seedlings. © 2020 Elsevier B.V.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Pourmohammadali, B., Salehi, M.H., Hosseinifard, S.J., Esfandiarpour Boroujeni, I., Shirani, H.

Studying the relationships between nutrients in pistachio leaves and its yield using hybrid GA-ANN model-based feature selection

(2020) Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 172, art. no. 105352, .

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85082013272&doi=10.1016%2fj.compag.2020.105352&partnerID=40&md5=44b7df9a86558224aef7b57f665f5c59

DOI: 10.1016/j.compag.2020.105352

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Soil Science, Shahrekord University, P.O. Box 115, Shahrekord, Iran;

Pistachio Research Center, Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rafsanjan, Iran;

Department of Soil Science, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, P.O. Box 518, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Sustainable and reliable management requires special attention to factors affecting crop yield. In the present study, a hybrid model of genetic algorithm and artificial neural network (GA-ANN) was employed to recognize the importance of nutrients in pistachio yield. One hundred seventy-five points in different pistachio orchards of Rafsanjan and Anar regions, Kerman province, the southeast of Iran, were identified and selected for leaf sampling and yield measurement. The concentration of phosphorus (P), potassium (K), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) was determined. The hybrid GA-ANN model was implemented in MATLAB software, after statistical analysis and multivariate regression modeling. The results showed that the correlation and linear multiple regression analysis could not justify the variations of pistachio yield in relation to leaves’ nutrients concentration. The lowest error of the hybrid GA-ANN model was observed by five features including concentrations of K, Mg, Fe, Zn and Cu. Sensitivity analysis of ANN indicated that the highest relative importance for predicting pistachio yield was related to Cu (34.6%), K (28.2%) and Fe (26.1%). The GA-ANN model was able to solve complex and multi-dimensional problems. The accurate and careful interpretation of the results, obtained from this approach can provide a good insight for optimum farm management planning. © 2020

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Hashemi, M., Dastjerdi, A.M., Shakerardekani, A., Mirdehghan, S.H.

Effect of alginate coating enriched with Shirazi thyme essential oil on quality of the fresh pistachio (Pistacia vera L.)

(2020) Journal of Food Science and Technology, .

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85084521443&doi=10.1007%2fs13197-020-04510-6&partnerID=40&md5=45a07a395a28989721ddbd500945045a

DOI: 10.1007/s13197-020-04510-6

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Horticultural Sciences, University of Hormozgan, Bandar Abbas, Iran;

Pistachio Research Center, Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rafsanjan, Iran;

Department of Horticultural Sciences, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: In this study, different concentrations of alginate (0%, 1% and 1.5% w/v) enriched with various concentrations of Shirazi thyme (Zataria multiflora Boiss) essential oil (0%, 0.3% and 0.5% w/v), were examined on postharvest characteristics of the fresh pistachio. The measurements (including total phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity, free fatty acid, peroxide value, aerobic mesophilic bacteria, mold and yeast, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids) were performed after 0, 13, 26 and 39 days during storage (3 ± 1 °C, 80 ± 5% RH). The results showed that alginate edible coating enriched with thyme’s essential oil (EO), contributed to the maintenance of higher values of phenolic content and antioxidant activity in comparison with the control. Edible coating treatment of enriched alginate with thyme oil reduced mold and yeast growth compared to the control and the alginate without thyme oil. Peroxide value and free fatty acid content were significantly lower in fruits treated with alginate-thyme in comparison with the control. All fruits which had been treated with alginate-thyme EO showed lower changes in saturated and unsaturated fatty acids after 39 days of storage, and fruits coated with combination of 1% alginate and 0.3% EO showed the highest content of palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, compared with other treatments. © 2020, Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India).

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Article in Press

SOURCE: Scopus

Tavanpour, T., Sarafrazi, A., Mehrnejad, M.R., Imani, S.

Distribution modelling of Acrosternum spp. (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in south of Iran

(2019) Biologia, 74 (12), pp. 1627-1635.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85065721266&doi=10.2478%2fs11756-019-00266-3&partnerID=40&md5=5a611640d98973f928c5242d6c3b0f13

DOI: 10.2478/s11756-019-00266-3

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Entomology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran;

Insect Taxonomy Research Department, Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection, Tehran, Iran;

Pistachio Research Institute, P.O. Box 77175.435, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Species distribution models (SDM) are increasingly used in the regional biodiversity assessments, pest management strategies, conservation biology, ecology, and evolution. In the present study, the maximum entropy model was used to predict the potential distribution of three hemipteran stink bugs, namely Acrosternum arabicum, A. breviceps, and A. millierei in Kerman province, south of Iran, using the presence records of the species sampled during 2012–2014 alongside seven environmental predictors. Besides, having described the climatic profile of the species, we explored the contribution percentage of the bioclimatic variables. The accuracy and performance of distribution models were also evaluated by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). According to Jackknife, the annual precipitation, the precipitation of the wettest month, and the precipitation of the coldest quarter were regarded as the most important predictors for A. arabicum distribution model. The maximum temperature of warmest month, the precipitation of the wettest month, and the precipitation of driest quarter for A. breviceps; and also for A. millierei temperature seasonality, the precipitation of coldest quarter, and the precipitation of wettest month were the most effective variables on species distribution. The AUC values, based on training data, were respectively 0.83 for A. arabicum, 0.89 for A. breviceps, and 0.83 for A. millierei. The suitable distribution sites and the most effective bioclimatic variables could be used in a more practical management program for three stink bugs. The MaxEnt algorithm had a good predictability based on the AUC values for the species under study. © 2019, Institute of Zoology, Slovak Academy of Sciences.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Pourani, M.S., Mahdian, K., Izadi, H., Basirat, M., Sahhafi, S.R.

Cold tolerance and supercooling points of two ladybird beetles (Col.: Coccinellidae): Impact of the diet

(2019) Cryobiology, 91, pp. 61-68.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85074413678&doi=10.1016%2fj.cryobiol.2019.10.197&partnerID=40&md5=859624a8bb7248ff94ff75b90dbf7097

DOI: 10.1016/j.cryobiol.2019.10.197

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Member of Scientific Board, Pistachio Research Center, Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rafsanjan, Iran;

Department of Genetics and Plant Productions, Faculty of Agriculture, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Ladybird beetles have successfully been used to control different pests. Cheilomenes sexmaculata (Fabricius) and Oenopia conglobata contaminata)Menetries((Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) are two dominant and efficient predators of the common pistachio psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae (Hem.: Psyllidae) in Iran. In the current study, the impact of two diets, i.e., nymphs of A. pistaciae and eggs of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lep.: Pyralidae), were investigated on the cold hardiness, supercooling point (SCP), and lethal temperature of different life stages of the coccinellids. The results suggested that the eggs of E. kuehniella are a suitable diet for both predators. In general, beetles of O. conglobata contaminata were more cold tolerant than those of C. sexmaculata. The SCP of the adults of C. sexmaculata, feeding on psyllid was about −15 °C, whereas the SCP of the beetles, feeding on the eggs of flour moth, was about −19 °C. However, the diets had no significant effects on the SCP of O. conglobata contaminata. For both ladybird beetles, eggs were the most sensitive stage, and adulthood was the most tolerant developmental stage. No eggs survived at zero and subzero temperatures. The survival of C. sexmaculata increased from 6.25% for adults fed on psyllids to 13.75% for those fed on flour moth eggs after 24 h exposure to cold at −4 °C. The survival of O. conglobata contaminata adults after exposure to cold at −4 °C for 24 h raised from 28.75% for adults fed on psyllids to 42.50% for those fed on flour moth eggs. Regardless of the diet, both beetles were considered to be chill-intolerant insects as the most mortality occurred above the SCP. © 2019 Elsevier Inc.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Jalali, M.A., Mehrnejad, M.R., Ellsworth, P.C., Riddick, E.

Inferring Biological Control Potential of Adult Predatory Coccinellids Using Life History Traits and Putative Habitat Preference

(2019) Journal of Economic Entomology, 112 (5), pp. 2116-2120.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85072628650&doi=10.1093%2fjee%2ftoz161&partnerID=40&md5=562c06400d06c1f122a95b65f3079388

DOI: 10.1093/jee/toz161

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Crop Protection, College of Agriculture, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan, 7713936417, Iran;

Pistachio Safety Research Center, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Department of Plant Protection, Pistachio Research Institute of Iran, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Department of Entomology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States

ABSTRACT: Aspects of the nutritional ecology and life histories of five predatory coccinellids (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) – two arboreal predator species, Oenopia conglobata contaminata (Menetries) and Adalia bipunctata (Linnaeus), and three herbaceous dwelling predator species, Coccinella undecimpunctata aegyptica (Reiche), Exochomus nigripennis (Erichson), and Hippodamia variegata (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) – were compared when fed either Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt and Lauterer (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae), the key psylla pest of pistachio trees, or Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), a common aphid on herbaceous plants in pistachio orchards. The putative habitat preferences of four of the five coccinellids studied were consistent with their performance on the major herbivore present in those two habitats in terms of net reproductive rate. Oenopia conglobata contaminata and Ad. bipunctata showed higher net reproductive rates when fed on pistachio psylla prey, whereas C. undecimpunctata aegyptiaca and E. nigripennis had better reproductive output on aphid prey. Moreover, E. nigripennis was the most specialized of these generalist predators, eating more and reproducing better when fed aphids. Hippodamia variegata was relatively unaffected by the diet offered, suggesting greater ability to switch among herbivore prey and perhaps better potential as a biocontrol agent with abilities to exploit Ag. pistaciae without large life history tradeoffs. © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Shakerardekani, A., Abootalebi, M.

Study on the pistachio oil oxidative stability increase using monoglyceride emulsifier and carotino oil at 60°c

(2019) Iranian Journal of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, 14 (3), pp. 87-96.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85074664026&partnerID=40&md5=74e288635f4f48ce970617ed1421f173

AFFILIATIONS: Pistachio Research Center, Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rafsanjan, Iran;

Department of Agriculture, Kar Higher Education Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Background and Objectives: Stability of the products made from pistachios depends on stability of the oil. Oxidized oil includes unpleasant taste and thus its quality and shelf-life decreases. The aim of this study was to assess pistachio oil oxidation stability alone and in combination with Carotino oil and monoglyceride emulsifier using method of accelerated temperature (60 °C). Materials & Methods: Qualitative factors (including free fatty acids, peroxide value, anisidine value, TOTOX value, 2,4-decadienal, color and sensory analysis) of the stored samples were evaluated on Days 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25. Results: In all treatments, including pure pistachio oil, pistachio oil with Carotino and pistachio oil with Carotino and monoglyceride emulsifier, free fatty acids, peroxide value, anisidine value, Totox value, 2,4-decadienal and a-value increased during storage with the highest increase seen on Day 25. In contrast, L* and b* values and fresh odor decreased during storage with the lowest value observed on Day 25 of storage. On Day 25 of storage, free fatty acids, peroxide value, anisidine value, TOTOX value and 2,4-decadienal were higher in pure pistachio oil than pistachio oil containing Carotino alone and pistachio oil containing Carotino and emulsifier. The 2,4-decadienal was not detected in samples on Day 0 but on Day 25 with a higher quantity in pure pistachio oil than other oils. This was not significantly different between pistachio oil containing Carotino and pistachio oil containing Carotino and emulsifier. Conclusion: Addition of Carotino and emulsifier either alone or in combination to pistachio oil affected the oil stability. Based on the TOTOX value, this addition increased the oil oxidative stability from 15 to 20 days at 60 °C. High quantities of oleic acid and palmitic acid in Carotino and stabilizing effects of emulsifier resulted in a higher stability for a combination of pistachio oil, Carotino and emulsifier, compared to other oils. © 2019, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute. All rights reserved.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Pourian, M.A., Bakhshi, D., Aalami, A., Hokmabadi, H.

Assessment of Genetic Relationships among Cultivated and Wild Pistachios (Pistacia vera L.) using Molecular Markers

(2019) Journal of Horticultural Research, 27 (1), pp. 37-46.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85075046658&doi=10.2478%2fjohr-2019-0005&partnerID=40&md5=529c3ae5dce87682cf4f75029054856c

DOI: 10.2478/johr-2019-0005

AFFILIATIONS: University of Guilan, Iran;

Iranian Pistachio Research Institute, Iran

ABSTRACT: Iran is one of the main diversity centers and origins of pistachios in the world. Pistachio cultivation spread first within the ancient Persian Empire and then moved gradually westward. Knowledge of the genetic relationships among wild and cultivated varieties of pistachio is important for the efficient utilization of the available germplasm resources. Three molecular marker strategies, namely, inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism (IRAP), and retrotransposon microsatellite amplified polymorphism (REMAP), were used to study the genetic relationships among 35 pistachio accessions including 15 wild-type genotypes of Pistacia vera and 20 important cultivars from Iran. According to the results, high levels of polymorphism were observed for all three marker systems. REMAP and IRAP techniques had the higher mean values of genetic relationships parameters than ISSR technique. The results from this study showed that the 5′LTR2, Sukkula, Sukkula + UBC855, and 5′LTR2 + UBC811 primers were the most informative and could be used to evaluate the genetic relationships of pistachios accessions. Cluster analysis using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) properly separated the accessions and divided them into four main groups. The presence of most cultivated genotypes in a group indicates genetic erosion of cultivated pistachio in Iran. Wild-type genotypes of P. vera are located in different clusters indicating the high diversity of the genotypes. The results provide useful genetic information about wild pistachios in northeastern of Iran and indicate that the use of wild pistachios in breeding programs could be useful for generating new genotypes with interesting characters. © 2019 Mohammad Aref Pourian et al., published by Sciendo 2019.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Pakdaman, N., Javanshah, A., Nadi, M.

The effects of some inorganic-, synthetic-and organic-fertilizers on the vegetative growth and iron content in pistachio cv. Ghazvini under alkaline conditions

(2019) Journal of Nuts, 10 (2), pp. 127-137.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85082086932&doi=10.22034%2fjon.2019.1867069.1054&partnerID=40&md5=7af185ad72a4adb478c56bd98a3d4192

DOI: 10.22034/jon.2019.1867069.1054

AFFILIATIONS: Pistachio Research Center, Horticulture Sciences Research Institute, Agriculture Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rafsanjan, Iran;

Pistachio Safety Center, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: In the current research, the effects of some organic fertilizers as fulvic and humic acids on the vegetative growth of pistachio seedlings in a semi-hydroponic culture containing Fe-EDDHA (as a synthetic fertilizer) and FeSO4 (as an inorganic fertilizer) were investigated. The alkalinity is recognized as a main problem in pistachio orchards, therefore the pH of nutrient solution was adjusted to 7.5 and 8.5 (as two alkaline pHs) versus 6.5 (as the optimum pH of hydroponics) in this study. Plants were treated for 9 months under greenhouse conditions. The results demonstrated that the organic fertilizers (especially humic acid) reduced plant growth in acidic condition (pH 6.5). It can be related to precipitation of humic acid under acidity and thereby removing some essential elements for instance Fe form plant growth medium. In contrast, humic substances increased plant growth up to 2.3 times under alkalinity. The analysis indicated that these organic-stimulants can improve plant growth under alkaline conditions by increasing Fe content to about 2 times in pistachio seedlings, especially in shoots. It was noted that this result was somewhat similar in plants grown in media containing Fe-EDDHA and FeSO4. In addition, environmental and economic importance of the application of humic and fulvic acids makes them proper candidates to substitute synthetic fertilizers for agricultural improvement under alkalinity. © Islamic Azad University.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Shakerardekani, A., Mohamadi, A.

Determination of peeling efficiency, free fatty acid, peroxide value and sensory evaluation of peeled pistachio kernel using hot water

(2019) Journal of Nuts, 10 (2), pp. 175-185.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85082070098&doi=10.22034%2fjon.2019.1877513.1067&partnerID=40&md5=4c0695e582776ffc1a300fc7077c6b2b

DOI: 10.22034/jon.2019.1877513.1067

AFFILIATIONS: Pistachio Research Center, Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rafsanjan, Iran;

Master of Science in Food Science and Technology, Department of Agriculture, Kar Higher Education Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Pistachio Safety Research Center, Rafsanjan university of Medical Sciences, Iran

ABSTRACT: Pistachio green kernel, is obtained by removing the red testa of around the whole kernel. In this study, the suitable peeling conditions for removing the testa of the kernel were determined using hot water in five termperature levels of 75, 80, 85, 90, and 95°C and diffetent hot water immersion times of 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 minutes in riped and unripe samples. Quality factors including the number of pistachio green kernels with remained red testa, free fatty acids, and peroxide value were measured at 3 and 6 months after peeling. Sensory evaluations (including appearance, color, taste, and texture) of the best treatments from the previous stage, were measured by 10 trained panelists. Peeling performance were not good using temperatures of 75 and 80°C in both riped and unripe samples. Peeling performance of 100%, was obtained at 85 and 90°C (6, 8 and 10 min) and 95°C (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 min) kernel immersion in hot water in riped and unripe cultivars. The qualitative factors, free fatty acids and peroxide value, has have increased in both riped and unripe samples during storage. After 6 months of storage, the lowest peroxide value was observed at 90°C (10 min immersion in hot water) and 95°C (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 min immersion in hot water). The minimum free fatty acid, was observed in riped ripe samples at 90° C (10 min immersion) and in the unripe samples at 95°C (2 and 4 min immersion). According to the comments of trained panelists, the significant differences between treatments were not observed in terms of the sensory characteristics such as taste, texture, color, and appearance at 5% level. In general, with respect to the performance of peeling, free fatty acids, peroxide value, and sensory evaluation, temperature of 95°C (2 min kernel immersion in hot water) can be used for peeling of riped and unripe samples. © Islamic Azad University.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Sajadian, H., Shamili, M., Hokmabadi, H., Tajabadipour, A., Hasheminasab, H.

Physiological responses of some rootstocks and interspecific hybrids of pistachio to cold stress under greenhouse conditions

(2019) Journal of Nuts, 10 (2), pp. 139-151.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85082031088&doi=10.22034%2fjon.2019.1868495.1055&partnerID=40&md5=e362e5dd3bd8c766b398f1bc49699a8d

DOI: 10.22034/jon.2019.1868495.1055

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Horticulture Science, University of Hormozgan, Hormozgan, Iran;

Department of Horticulture, Education and Extention Institute, AREEO, Tehran, Iran;

Pistachio Research Center, Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Cold is an environmental factor limiting the growth and yield of agricultural crops. To find cold-tolerant pistachio rootstocks, a factorial experiment was conducted at Pistachio Research Center (PRC), Rafsanjan, Iran during 2017-2018. The factors included six rootstocks (Badami Zarand, Ghazvini, Sarakhs, Integerrima x Badami Zarand, Integerrima x Ghazvini and Integerrima x Sarakhs) and four thermal treatments (4, 0,-2, and-4°C) with three iterations. Seedlings in 6-8 leaf stage were placed in thermal treatments for two hours. Ionic leakage, pH of leaked solution, chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthesis efficiency index, chlorophyll (a, b, total) and carotenoid contents were the traits assessed in this study. Based on the results, a decrease in temperature made an increase in ionic leakage rate, conversely making decreases in pH of the leaked solution, photosynthetic pigments contents, Fv/Fm and PI index. In addition, the highest photosynthetic pigments, pH of leaked solution, Fv/Fm and PI index were observed in Ghazvini and Integerrima x Ghazvini rootstocks. Meanwhile, the highest ionic leakage was observed in Integerrima x Badami Zarand. In aggregate, Ghazvini and Integerrima x Ghazvini were identified as the most cold-tolerant rootstocks, while Integerrima x Badami Zarand was the most cold-sensitive rootstock. © Islamic Azad University.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Zeng, L., Tu, X.-L., Dai, H., Han, F.-M., Lu, B.-S., Wang, M.-S., Nanaei, H.A., Tajabadipour, A., Mansouri, M., Li, X.-L., Ji, L.-L., Irwin, D.M., Zhou, H., Liu, M., Zheng, H.-K., Esmailizadeh, A., Wu, D.-D.

Whole genomes and transcriptomes reveal adaptation and domestication of pistachio

(2019) Genome Biology, 20 (1), art. no. 79, . Cited 3 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85064459047&doi=10.1186%2fs13059-019-1686-3&partnerID=40&md5=9a0416ed15e2e6a3acef1d4b594e8b97

DOI: 10.1186/s13059-019-1686-3

AFFILIATIONS: State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, 650223, China;

Allwegene Technologies Inc., Beijing, 102209, China;

Biomarker Technologies Corporation, Beijing, China;

Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, PB 76169-133, Kerman, Iran;

Kunming College of Life Science, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, 650204, China;

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, Banting and Best Diabetes Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON  M5S 1A8, Canada;

College of Landscape Architecture and Tourism, Agricultural University of Hebei, Baoding, 071000, China;

Pistachio Research Center, Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rafsanjan, Iran;

Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran;

Chinese Academy of Forestry Sciences, Beijing, China;

Center for Excellence in Animal Evolution and Genetics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, 650223, China

ABSTRACT: Background: Pistachio (Pistacia vera), one of the most important commercial nut crops worldwide, is highly adaptable to abiotic stresses and is tolerant to drought and salt stresses. Results: Here, we provide a draft de novo genome of pistachio as well as large-scale genome resequencing. Comparative genomic analyses reveal stress adaptation of pistachio is likely attributable to the expanded cytochrome P450 and chitinase gene families. Particularly, a comparative transcriptomic analysis shows that the jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthetic pathway plays an important role in salt tolerance in pistachio. Moreover, we resequence 93 cultivars and 14 wild P. vera genomes and 35 closely related wild Pistacia genomes, to provide insights into population structure, genetic diversity, and domestication. We find that frequent genetic admixture occurred among the different wild Pistacia species. Comparative population genomic analyses reveal that pistachio was domesticated about 8000 years ago and suggest that key genes for domestication related to tree and seed size experienced artificial selection. Conclusions: Our study provides insight into genetic underpinning of local adaptation and domestication of pistachio. The Pistacia genome sequences should facilitate future studies to understand the genetic basis of agronomically and environmentally related traits of desert crops. © 2019 The Author(s).

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Jalali, M.A., Reitz, S., Mehrnejad, M.R., Ranjbar, F., Ziaaddini, M.

Food Utilization, Development, and Reproductive Performance of Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Feeding on an Aphid or Psylla Prey Species

(2019) Journal of Economic Entomology, 112 (2), pp. 571-576. Cited 1 time.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85063648095&doi=10.1093%2fjee%2ftoy424&partnerID=40&md5=3e569ea1269533d4dcaff26614cbc5ff

DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy424

AFFILIATIONS: Pistachio Safety Research Center, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, 771751735, Iran;

Department of Crop Protection, College of Agriculture, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan, 7713936417, Iran;

Department of Crop and Soil Science, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR  97914, United States;

Department of Plant Protection, Pistachio Research Institute of Iran, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the effect of two prey species, Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt and Lauterer (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae) and Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on the biology, reproduction, and food consumption indices of Coccinella septempunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Both species of prey were readily consumed by C. septempunctata larvae and adults. The predator was able to successfully utilize the psylla prey for larval development, but failed to lay eggs when fed this prey. However, A. gossypii fully supported both development and reproduction of C. septempunctata. Dry mass of ingested food was similar on both diets for each larval instar. However, the dry mass gained during each stadium for C. septempunctata was significantly greater with A. gossypii prey. The aphid diet was superior to the psylla diet in terms of food conversion efficiency as larvae consumed aphids more efficiently than psyllas, regardless of the higher consumption index on the psylla prey. Our results confirm that the study of prey suitability for larvae and adult stages of predatory lady beetles should be studied separately. © The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Pourmohammadali, B., Hosseinifard, S.J., Hassan Salehi, M., Shirani, H., Esfandiarpour Boroujeni, I.

Effects of soil properties, water quality and management practices on pistachio yield in Rafsanjan region, southeast of Iran

(2019) Agricultural Water Management, 213, pp. 894-902. Cited 2 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85058214835&doi=10.1016%2fj.agwat.2018.12.005&partnerID=40&md5=957e6be339c178100a557a358c0c0135

DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2018.12.005

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Soil Science, Shahrekord University, P.O. Box 115, Shahrekord, Iran;

Pistachio Research Center, Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rafsanjan, Iran;

Department of Soil Science, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, P.O. Box 518, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: In recent decades, the quantity and quality of irrigation water have been reduced due to a significant increase in pistachio cultivation and uncontrolled exploitation of groundwater resources as well as reduction in rainfall precipitation. Therefore, agricultural producers, researchers and policy makers need to pay more attention to appropriate land management as an important strategy to achieve greater yield per unit area and to use soil and water resources in an optimal way. So, the present study was conducted to model the relationships between pistachio yield and soil, water and management variables in Rafsanjan region, the southeast of Iran. One hundred and ninety nine mature orchards were selected and sampled in such a way that an acceptable range of soil and water quality and management were included. The data set consisted of a dependent variable (pistachio yield) and 67 independent variables including soil, water and management characteristics. The results of hybrid genetic algorithm-artificial neural network (GA-ANN) showed that the lowest error was related to the case in which the 23 features were used in modeling. Then, stepwise multiple linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural network (ANN) techniques were applied to estimate pistachio yield. The results indicated that MLR could explain only 28% of the pistachio yield variation, whereas its accuracy increased when the data became more homogeneous via geographically dividing the study area into four parts with the highest densities of pistachio orchards. ANN-based model had a 90% accuracy to predict pistachio yield in the study area. Thus, an accurate estimation of pistachio yield could be achieved by reducing the data dimensionality using feature selection techniques and modeling with ANN. As the models were highly sensitive to irrigation water features, special attention should be paid to new irrigation methods and management practices as an effective strategy to minimize water losses and increase water use efficiency. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Bagheri Bodaghabadi, M., Faskhodi, A.A., Salehi, M.H., Hosseinifard, S.J., Heydari, M.

Soil suitability analysis and evaluation of pistachio orchard farming, using canonical multivariate analysis

(2019) Scientia Horticulturae, 246, pp. 528-534. Cited 5 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85056793984&doi=10.1016%2fj.scienta.2018.10.069&partnerID=40&md5=2e7953fd2a9a5265025f88c837212116

DOI: 10.1016/j.scienta.2018.10.069

AFFILIATIONS: Soil and Water Research Istitute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran;

University of Isfahan, Dept. of Geographical Sciences and Planning, Iran;

Soil Science Department, College of Agriculture, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran;

Pistachio Research Center, Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Agriculture Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Soil properties and crop yields are strongly interrelated. Identifying the relation can leads to better management of cultivation and land suitability evaluation. Some difficulties related to statistically analyzing the soil properties, especially in relation with the crops and water, arises from the fact of their high variability and intercorrelation, which causes the multicollinearity problems. Adequate choice and use of multivariate statistical methods is appropriate to approach these areas of investigation. This study deals with the relations and interdependencies of soil physio-chemical attributes and pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) yield, as the most important commercial nut crop of Iran and one of the most worldwide. The study area is the pistachio orchard farms of Anar region in Rafsanjan County, Kerman, Iran; and the employed canonical multivariate methods are redundancy analysis (RDA) and discriminant analysis (DA). Six orchards were chosen with the same managerial procedures, pistachio cultivars (Owhadi) and tree ages. But, due to the aim of distinguishing influential soil properties, the vegetative growth and pistachio yields were different. Each orchard then was divided to two suitable and unsuitable parts, based on the actually measured yields. In each part, three replicates of soil sampling (in to depths of 0–50 and 50–100 cm) and three trees for eachever were considered in order to determining the pistachio yields. To explore the interrelationships between soil properties, orchard suitable/unsuitable parts and yields and distinguishing misclassified orchards based on the yield parameter and vegetative growth, the canonical multivariate RDA was employed. Results showed a relatively strong correspondence between yield and soil properties. Clay, EC, K and B were negatively related and sand and CaCO3 significantly positive correlated and altogether explained 100% of yield total variation. The multivariate DA then adopted to reclassify the orchard samples into two performance groups based on the variations of soil attributes. Results indicated two influential variables of clay and EC in distinguishing land suitability for pistachio farming, were able to classify 80.5% of orchards correctly (73.7% to suitable orchards and 88.2% to unsuitable ones). Overally, results showed a significant difference between soil properties in suitable and unsuitable areas, as well as a significant relationship between some soil properties and the yield of pistachio. Findings, applicably recommend that site suitability for optimal pistachio cultivation can satisfactorily be evaluated using only few and easy-determining soil properties, throughout canonical discriminant functions of appropriate multivariate analysis. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Sedaghat, R.

Investigation of factors affecting Pistachio orchards’ productivity in Kerman province

(2019) Journal of Nuts, 10 (1), pp. 57-70.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85069752491&doi=10.22034%2fjon.2019.665896&partnerID=40&md5=d2ba278a7c95d65582c84ad2e1a2a436

DOI: 10.22034/jon.2019.665896

AFFILIATIONS: Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Pistachio Research Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Investigation of factors affecting total and partial productivity with applying these factors for reforming producers’ economical/ technical management may provide a proper base for enhancing productivity and profitability as well, and then leading a more sustainable situation for Pistachio orchards in the future. In this paper with respect to scattering type of statistical population, a multi stage cluster random sampling method applied for data collection. The 200 producers selected based on area planted in each region and interviewed personally, with completing a research questionnaire, during 2012-2015. Turnquist- till index, multi-variable regression and analysis of variances applied to investigate orchards productivity and factors affected. Results indicated that average productivity, maximum productivity and productivity growth rate had declined during study period. Results also indicated that producers’ education level and chemical fertilizers amount had positive effect on total productivity, but number of garden fractions, number of family members, ratio of the number of male to female tress and amount of organic manures had negative effect on total productivity. Results also revealed that partial productivity of Labour force, fluid fertilizers, organic manures and water resources had positive effects on production per hectare. Finally, to enhance productivity and profitability of farming system and reach to a more sustainable one, it is suggested to provide necessary circumstances for entrance of agricultural graduated people in pistachio production sector, to program an integrate pistachio farms system and to put more effective supervision/monitoring on agricultural inputs and credits market. © Islamic Azad University.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Dehghani-Yakhdani, H., Iranipour, S., Mehrnejad, M.R., Farshbaf-Pourabad, R.

The role of iron (Fe) in the population dynamics of pistachio psyllid, Agonoscena pistaciae (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae) in Pistacia orchards

(2019) European Journal of Entomology, 116, art. no. 021, . Cited 1 time.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85073890908&doi=10.14411%2fEJE.2019.021&partnerID=40&md5=d14fb6a458a8b69bdda2740f76dafdd2

DOI: 10.14411/EJE.2019.021

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran;

Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: The common pistachio psyllid (CPP) is thought to respond to nutrient availability in pistachio trees. We determined the effect of a deficiency of leaf iron (Fe) has on the abundance of the pistachio psyllid at a regional scale. First, we monitored the abundance pistachio psyllid in four pistachio orchards (24 trees as 24 repetitions) located in Maybod County, Yazd province in the centre of Iran and then measured leaf nutrient levels. Orchards were located up to 2.6 km apart. Multivariate regressions were used to determine the relationship between leaf nutrients and CPP population growth. The results indicate that the number of psyllid eggs and population growth rate of the nymphs was negatively correlated with Fe levels in the leaves, while peak numbers of psyllid eggs were positively correlated with the levels of Cu in the leaves. In a manipulative field experiment, we conducted two experiments: (1) pistachio trees treated with iron compared with control trees, and (2) pistachio trees previously treated with iron were treated with ammonium sulphate and compared with trees treated with ammonium sulphate. In the first experiment, psyllids in leaf disc-cages had a significantly greater intrinsic rate of population increase and net reproductive rate on Fe-treated trees than the control trees (Stage 1). In the second experiment, psyllids in leaf disc-cages had similar intrinsic rates of population increase and net reproduction both on the ammonium sulphate treated trees (control) and those previously treated with iron. This indicates that iron may have reacted negatively with nitrogen content of the leaves. In general, these findings indicate that when there is a deficiency of iron in the leaves, the application of nitrogen fertilizer had little effect on the performance of CPP and may have played a minor role in the population dynamics of CPP, but the application of a Fe fertilizer without considering the nitrogen content of the leaves may lead to a population outbreak. © Institute of Entomology, Biology Centre, Czech Academy of Sciences, Ceské Budejovice.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Raoufi, A., Rahemi, M., Salehi, H., Javanshah, A.

Selecting High-Performance Rootstocks for Pistachio Cultivars under Salinity Stress Based on Their Morpho-physiological Characteristics

(2019) International Journal of Fruit Science, .

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85076900827&doi=10.1080%2f15538362.2019.1701616&partnerID=40&md5=cc3e73a5c1b46f616cdf3d2457f261ae

DOI: 10.1080/15538362.2019.1701616

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran;

Department of Horticultural Sciences, Pistachio Research Center, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: In Iran, the most pistachio orchards are located in semi-arid regions and irrigated with saline water which influences their growth and yield. The present investigation was conducted to evaluate the effects of salinity on growth, and morpho-physiological parameters of six pistachio genotypes as rootstock (ʽAkbariʼ, ʽAhmad-Aghaiʼ, ʽUCB-1ʼ, ʽItalyayiʼ, ʽGhazviniʼ and ʽBadamiʼ). Treatments were different salinity concentrations using NaCl at 0.5, 12 and 18 dSm-1 on six genotypes of pistachio. According to the results, by increasing salinity, the FW, DW, number of growing leaves, SPAD index of leaves, chlorophyll content and stomatal conductance were reduced, but electrolyte leakage of leaf and root tissues, soluble sugars and antioxidant capacity were increased. ʽUCB-1ʼ, ʽAkbariʼ and ʽAhmad-Aghaiʼ had the highest leaf area compared to other genotypes under salinity conditions. The lowest leaf abscission was belonged to ʽUCB-1ʼ and its difference was significant with other genotypes. The WUE of ʽUCB-1ʼ reduced and it was higher than ʽAkbariʼ. The growth of ʽUCB-1ʼ significantly declined up to 79.6% under salinity stress. Salinity stress had the lowest adverse effect on the growth of ʽAkbariʼ and ʽAhmad-Aghaiʼ genotypes. There was no significant difference among genotypes in regard to RWC under salinity stress. It can be concluded that ʽUCB-1ʼ, ʽAkbariʼ and to some extent ʽAhmad-Aghaiʼ were tolerant to salinity stress and can be recommended to use as rootstock under moderate salinity conditions. © 2019, © 2019 Taylor & Francis.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Article in Press

SOURCE: Scopus

Meymand, M.Z., Sahebzadeh, N., Ravan, S., Basirat, M.

Side effects of spirotetramat and imidacloprid on Hippodamia variegata Goezee feeding on Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt & Lauterer

(2019) Journal of Nuts, 10 (1), pp. 35-45. Cited 1 time.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85069759643&doi=10.22034%2fjon.2019.664207&partnerID=40&md5=c1499be32bd6353b3bafbb8e3a489909

DOI: 10.22034/jon.2019.664207

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran;

Pistachio Research Center, Horticultural Science Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: The Adonis ladybird, Hippodamia variegata Goeze (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is known as an important predator of the Common pistachio psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt & Lauterer (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). Despite using the selective pesticides to manage the pests in the pistachio orchards, these chemicals have influenced non-target organisms like predators and parasitoids. In the present study, the effects of spirotetramat and imidacloprid (500 and 400 ml/1000 L, respectively) on some biological parameters of H. variegata fed on the common pistachio psylla were investigated under laboratory conditions (27.5 ± 1°C, 65 ± 5% RH and 16:8 h L: D photoperiod). To this end, the eggs of ladybird beetles were exposed to pesticides via a Dipping method. In addition, the impact of pesticides on immature and adult stages was studied. The daily number of eggs laid by a female ladybird was also recorded in laboratory conditions. The results showed that spirotetramat and imidacloprid had increased the duration of immature developmental stages (egg, larva, and pupae) and the number of daily laid eggs of female ladybirds compared to those by control (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, p < 0.05). The highest and the lowest of net reproductive rates were also observed in control and imidacloprid treatments, respectively. Considering the results, the spirotetramat and imidacloprid had caused adverse effects on the demographic parameters of H. variegata and had also influenced the efficiency of this predator. Therefore, spirotetramat and imidacloprid were suggested to be used in IPM of Agonoscena pistaciae with caution. © Islamic Azad University.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Yazdanpanah, A., Nouri-Ganbalani, G., Razmjou, J., Basirat, M., Fathi, S.A.-A.

Comparison of the suitability of four commercial pistachio cultivars to the pistachio green stink-bug, Brachynema germari, under the laboratory conditions

(2019) Journal of Nuts, 10 (1), pp. 47-55.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85069753512&doi=10.22034%2fjon.2019.665895&partnerID=40&md5=28f34a391226d036f352805984053256

DOI: 10.22034/jon.2019.665895

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran;

Pistachio Research Center, Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: The pistachio green stink-bug, Brachynema germari Kolenati (Hem.: Pentatomidae), is an important pest of pistachio in Iran. In this research, the effects of four commercial pistachio cultivars that are commonly grown in Iran including Kaleghochi, Ahmadaghaii, Ohadi and Akbari were evaluated on the biology (developmental time, mortality rate, longevity) and demographic parameters of B. germari under the laboratory conditions at 27.5±1°C, 65±5% RH and 16: 8 (L: D) h, during 2016-2017. The longest and the shortest immature development times were observed on Akbari (38.11 days) and Kaleghochi (25.54 days) cultivars, respectively. The highest and the lowest mortality rates of immature stages were on Akbari and Kaleghochi cultivars, respectively. The gross (GRR) and net reproductive rates (R0) were significantly lower on Akbari compared to other cultivars. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm) and the finite rate of increase (λ) were significantly different among the studied cultivars. The calculated rm values were 0.04, 0.06, 0.07 and 0.08 (day-1) on Akbari, Ohadi, Ahmadaghaii and Kaleghochi cultivars, respectively. Also the lowest value of λ was observed on Akbari cultivar that was significantly different from the other three cultivars. Moreover, the longest mean generation time (T) was also observed on Akbari cultivar. The reproductive parameters were also significantly different on the studied cultivars and the lowest and the highest values of all parameters were observed on Akbari and Kaleghochi cultivars, respectively. According to these results, it was concluded that among the studied cultivars, Akbari was the less suitable cultivar for pistachio green stink-bug compared to others and it can be used in IPM of this pest. © Islamic Azad University.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Amanifar, N., Babaei, G., Mohammadi, A.H.

Xylella fastidiosa causes leaf scorch of pistachio (Pistacia vera) in Iran

(2019) Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 58 (2), pp. 369-378.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85077719861&doi=10.14601%2fPhytopathol_Mediter-10623&partnerID=40&md5=bf1d79be9be20ebcacb1d449956a5b2f

DOI: 10.14601/Phytopathol_Mediter-10623

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Plant Protection Research, Charmahal va Bakhtiary Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Shahrekord, Iran;

Department of Plant Pathology, Pistachio Research Center, Horticultural Science Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Since the early 2010s, pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) leaf scorch symptoms have been observed in orchards in several provinces in Iran. Seventeen of 83 symptomatic leaf samples from pistachio plants from 21 orchards were positive for the presence of Xylella fastidiosa, as detected by DAS-ELISA with X. fastidiosa-specific antibodies and by PCR assays with X. fastidiosa-specific primers. A Gram-negative bacterium similar to X. fastidiosa was isolated into solid media. DAS-ELISA and PCR confirmed the identity of the isolated bacteria as X. fastidiosa. Koch’s postulates were fulfilled by artificially inoculating isolates obtained from pistachio showing leaf scorch to healthy pistachio and Nicotiana tabacum (cv. White Burley). Selected isolates induced leaf scorch symptoms when inoculated on tobacco and pistachio seedlings grown under greenhouse conditions. Early leaf scorch symptoms appeared approx. 2 months after inoculation of tobacco and approx. 3 months for pistachio. Reisolation of X. fastidiosa from inoculated and symptomatic plants and DAS-ELISA and PCR tests confirmed the identity of the re-isolated bacteria to be X. fastidiosa. On the basis of disease symptoms, pathogen isolation, pathogenicity tests and positive diagnosis by DAS-ELISA and PCR, X. fastidiosa is concluded to be the causal agent of pistachio leaf scorch in Iran. This is the first report of isolation and pathogenicity of X. fastidiosa in pistachio worldwide. © 2019 Amanifar N., Babaei, G. Mohammadi A.H.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Jalali, M.A., Mehrnejad, M.R., Ellsworth, P.C., Ranjbar, F., Ziaaddini, M.

Predator performance: inferring predator switching behaviors based on nutritional indices in a coccinellid–psylla–aphid system

(2018) Pest Management Science, 74 (12), pp. 2851-2857. Cited 4 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85050481196&doi=10.1002%2fps.5076&partnerID=40&md5=09acd7400ad3377c3ecd4aa976ff592d

DOI: 10.1002/ps.5076

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Crop Protection, College of Agriculture, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Department of Plant Protection, Pistachio Research Institute of Iran, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Department of Entomology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the nutritional ecology of predatory coccinellids is important for the selection of efficient biocontrol agents. We examined five species common in pistachio orchards and determined their nutritional indices when fed on the key psylla pest of the system, Agonoscena pistaciae, in contrast to an alternative prey common on herbaceous plants in orchards, Aphis gossypii. RESULTS: Feeding experiments revealed that Oenopia conglobata contaminata and Adalia bipunctata may be more efficient as biocontrol agents for A. pistaciae than for A. gossypii, as A. bipunctata had a high efficiency of conversion of ingested food and a high relative growth rate and O. conglobata contaminata had a high consumption index on psylla prey. In contrast, the nutritional indices of Coccinella undecimpunctata aegyptica, Hippodamia variegata and Exochomus nigripennis suggest that A. gossypii was a more suitable host food. CONCLUSION: Where both the psyllids and the aphids occur in pistachio orchards, especially under conditions of unlimited access to A. gossypii, C. undecimpunctata aegyptica, H. variegata and E. nigripennis may prefer to move from psylla-infested leaves of pistachio trees and travel to and stay on weeds to feed on A. gossypii. The value of using nutritional ecology as a means of understanding and predicting biocontrol outcomes and selecting better candidates for mass rearing is discussed. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Mehrnejad, M.R.

Investigation into the overwintering and winter-management of the common pistachio psyllid, Agonoscena pistaciae (Hemiptera: aphalaridae), a major pest in pistachio plantations

(2018) Zoology and Ecology, 28 (4), pp. 384-388. Cited 1 time.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85053240931&doi=10.1080%2f21658005.2018.1516339&partnerID=40&md5=0d7189ceb398f859dd7145e9c5d52139

DOI: 10.1080/21658005.2018.1516339

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Plant Protection Research, Pistachio Research Centre, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Overwintering sites and winter-management of the common pistachio psyllid, Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt & Lauterer, a serious pest of the cultivated pistachio Pistacia vera Linnaeus, were surveyed in pistachio orchards in Rafsanjan, south Iran, through 2010 and 2012. Agonoscena pistaciae overwinters within orchards, preferentially concealed under organic material on the ground. Plant litter, including old pistachio leaves and weed residue such as dead grass, supported the greatest numbers of adult psyllids during the late autumn through early spring. Emergence began in late February and lasted for about 50 days. The number of psyllids that emerged from fallen dead leaves mixed with weed residue was about 15 times greater than the number of psyllids that emerged from bare ground. This result verified the suggestion that A. pistaciae might be controlled whilst overwintering. Winter ploughing of the orchard floor caused a significant reduction in the density of the psyllid population. Orchard sanitation, such as the removal and burial of any organic materials left at orchard’s margins between late December and late February is also considered critical for the cultural control of A. pistaciae. Cultural control measures at this time can be a very useful method for reducing overwintering populations of this psyllid. © 2018, © 2018 Nature Research Centre.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Mohammadi-Moghaddam, T., Razavi, S.M.A., Taghizadeh, M., Pradhan, B., Sazgarnia, A., Shaker-Ardekani, A.

Hyperspectral imaging as an effective tool for prediction the moisture content and textural characteristics of roasted pistachio kernels

(2018) Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization, 12 (3), pp. 1493-1502. Cited 10 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85042538283&doi=10.1007%2fs11694-018-9764-x&partnerID=40&md5=b066dff68272f2378c237614dcbfaaaf

DOI: 10.1007/s11694-018-9764-x

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Food Science and Technology, Neyshabur University of Medical Sciences, Neyshabur, Iran;

Department of Food Science and Technology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (FUM), P.O. Box: 91775-1163, Mashhad, Iran;

School of Systems, Management and Leadership, Faculty of Engineering and IT, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia;

Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran;

Pistachio Research Center, Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to develop calibration models for prediction of moisture content and textural characteristics (fracture force, hardness, apparent modulus of elasticity and compressive energy) of pistachio kernels roasted in different conditions (temperatures 90, 120 and 150 °C; times 20, 35 and 50 min and air velocities 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 m/s) using Vis/NIR hyperspectral imaging and multivariate analysis. The effects of different pre-processing methods and spectral treatments such as normalization [multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), standard normal variate transformation (SNV)], smoothing (median filter, Savitzky–Golay and Wavelet) and differentiation (first derivative, D1 and second derivative, D2) on the obtained data were investigated. The prediction models were developed by partial least square regression (PLSR) and artificial neural network (ANN). The results indicated that ANN models have higher potential to predict moisture content and textural characteristics of roasted pistachio kernels comparing to PLSR models. High correlation was observed between reflectance data and fracture force (R2 = 0.957 and RMSEP = 3.386) using MSC, Savitzky–Golay and D1, compressive energy (R2 = 0.907 and RMSEP = 15.757) using the combination of MSC, Wavelet and D1, moisture content (R2 = 0.907 and RMSEP = 0.179) and apparent modulus of elasticity (R2 = 0.921 and RMSEP = 2.366) employing combination of SNV, Wavelet and D1, respectively. Moreover, Vis–NIR data correlated well with hardness (R2 = 0.876 and RMSEP = 5.216) using SNV, Wavelet and D2. These results showed the capability of Vis/NIR hyperspectral imaging and the central role of multivariate analysis in developing accurate models for prediction of moisture content and textural properties of roasted pistachio kernels. © 2018, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Moradi, M., Nejad, F.J., Bonjar, G.H.S., Fani, S.R., Mimand, B.M., Probst, C., Madani, M.

Efficacy of Bacillus subtilis native strains for biocontrol of Phytophthora crown and root rot of pistachio in Iran

(2018) Tropical Plant Pathology, 43 (4), pp. 306-313. Cited 1 time.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85051510944&doi=10.1007%2fs40858-018-0226-0&partnerID=40&md5=ac61ef8a88cca9af8f0102e0c2853567

DOI: 10.1007/s40858-018-0226-0

AFFILIATIONS: Pistachio Research Center, Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rafsanjan, Iran;

Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran;

Plant Protection Research Department, Yazd Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center (AREEO), Yazd, Iran;

Irrigated Agriculture Research and Extension Center, Washington State University, Prosser, WA, United States;

Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada

ABSTRACT: In Iran, Phytophthora crown and root rot of pistachio trees (also known as gummosis) destroys a significant number of fertile and non-fertile trees each year. To identify potential biocontrol agents effective in controlling pistachio gummosis, 200 soil samples were collected from 19 pistachio growing regions in Kerman province. Out of the 321 strains tested for antagonistic activity against Phytophthora pistaciae, 13 were selected as potential inhibitors of the disease. The tested strains were able to inhibit Phytophthora growth in dual culture, volatile and non-volatile assays by 14–72%, 12–68% and 27–85%, respectively. The highest inhibition was achieved by three strains identified as Bacillus subtilis using phenotypic characteristics, biochemical and physiological tests as well as sequencing the 16S rRNA genomic region for each strain. Co-inoculation experiments of six months old pistachio seedlings with P. pistaciae and the three selected B. subtilis strains reduced mortality rates by up to 80%. B. subtilis strain BSIPR35 was identified as the most promising biocontrol agent in greenhouse experiments. The ability of the selected strains to withstand drought, high temperature and salinity stresses was further tested. The growth of the strains was reduced under abiotic stresses ranging from 22 to 94%. All strains had the same growth under drought stress, while in salinity and under high temperature strain BSIPR35 acted superiorly compared to the other two strains. The bacterial strains may be effective in inhibiting gummosis in vivo, which requires further investigations. © 2018, Sociedade Brasileira de Fitopatologia.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Esfandiarpour-Borujeni, I., Javad Hosseinifard, S., Shirani, H., Zeinadini, M., Asghar Besalatpour, A.

Identifying Soil and Plant Nutrition Factors Affecting Yield in Irrigated Mature Pistachio Orchards

(2018) Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 49 (12), pp. 1474-1490. Cited 3 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85046038749&doi=10.1080%2f00103624.2018.1464186&partnerID=40&md5=3fb4cff7b4ef7b67c6e250ba7e99b85c

DOI: 10.1080/00103624.2018.1464186

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Pistachio Research Center, Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Agriculture Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the potential use of a hybrid Genetic Algorithm-Artificial Neural Network (GA–ANN) method for predicting pistachio yield and for identifying the determinant factors affecting pistachio yield in Rafsanjan region, Iran. A total of 142 pistachio orchards were selected randomly and soil samples were taken at three depths. Besides, water samples and leaves from branches without fruit were taken in each sampling point. Management information and pistachio yields were achieved by completing a questionnaire. Primarily, 58 variables affecting pistachio yield were measured, and then 26 out of them were selected by minimizing mean square error (MSE) using a feature selection (FS) method. The results showed that the accuracy of the method was acceptable. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis showed that the main determinant features affecting the pistachio yield were the irrigation water amount, leaf phosphorus, soil soluble magnesium, electrical conductivity (EC), and leaf nitrogen. © 2018, © 2018 Taylor & Francis.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Abolghasemi, A., Shojaaddini, M., Tajabadipour, A., Sefidkon, F.

Composition of Pistacia khinjuk (Anacardiaceae) Leaf Essential Oil and its Insecticidal Activity on Common Pistachio Psyllid, Agonoscena pistaciae (Hem., Psylloidea)

(2018) Journal of Essential Oil-Bearing Plants, 21 (3), pp. 796-802. Cited 2 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85050971620&doi=10.1080%2f0972060X.2018.1498397&partnerID=40&md5=0cf45a4d7610147cda6adc7d5b5bcc11

DOI: 10.1080/0972060X.2018.1498397

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Plant Protection, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran;

Technical and Vocational University, Tehran, Iran;

Iran Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Tehran, Iran

ABSTRACT: Wild pistachio species, Pistacia khinjuk Stocks, is the non-preferred host plant of common psyllid, Aganoscena pistaciae, the key pest of cultivated pistachios, P. vera L. in many Asian countries. P. khinjuk essential oil (EO) was obtained from leaf samples via hydro-distillation. EO chemical composition was identified by GC and GC-MASS. Forty compounds out of 48 total compounds were identified in oil. The major constituents of EO were myrcene (18.7 %), α-eudesmol (12.3 %), β-eudesmol (9.3 %), 1,7-di-epi-β-cedrene (7.3 %), bicyclogermacrene (5.6 %) and δ-eudesmol (4.9 %). Insecticidal activity of EO and pure myrcene, as the major EO constituent, were separately determined through contact bioassay tests against the psyllid eggs and nymphs. Both EO and myrcene caused approximately equal mortalities of 30-45 % on eggs and 65-90 % on nymphs. This is the first report about the insecticidal activity of P. khinjuk essential oil against A. pistaciae. © 2018, © 2018 Har Krishan Bhalla & Sons.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Esmaeili, M., Goli, S.A.H., Shirvani, A., Shakerardakani, A.

Improving Storage Stability of Pistachio Oil Packaged in Different Containers by Using Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Essential Oils

(2018) European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 120 (4), art. no. 1700432, . Cited 4 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85042142614&doi=10.1002%2fejlt.201700432&partnerID=40&md5=919cfd55d6c8cf1b2dd75e6999193da1

DOI: 10.1002/ejlt.201700432

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156 83111, Iran;

Pistachio Research Center, Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: In this study, the antioxidant capacity of rosemary (REO) and peppermint (PEO) essential oils along with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) is investigated on oxidative stability of pistachio oil packaged in glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The essential oils (EOs) and their mixture are added at 1500 and 3000 ppm concentrations into the oil stored for 80 days at 60 °C under darkness. In order to evaluate the efficacy of antioxidants, peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid, total phenolic compounds, oxidative stability index (OSI), conjugated dienes and trienes, free fatty acids (FFAs), and iodine value is measured at intervals of 20 days. The results show that natural antioxidants can reduce PV and FFA levels about five- and threefolds compared to control, respectively. The OSI in raw pistachio oil (16 h) reduces to 5 h, while in treated sample by REO the reduction is only to 13 h after storage. Generally, the results reveal that in all measured parameters, following order can be observed for antioxidant activity: 3000 ppm REO>3000 ppm PEO>100 ppm BHT >1500 ppm REO >1500 ppm mixed >1500 ppm PEO > control. Moreover, the findings show that glass container is better than PET to retard oxidation process. Practical Application: Pistachio oil is known as a functional and commercial oil that is susceptible to oxidation due to its high level of unsaturated fatty acids. In this work, rosemary and mint essential oils as natural antioxidant are applied for improving oxidation stability of pistachio oil. Antioxidant capacity of rosemary (REO) and peppermint (PEO) essential oils is investigated on oxidative stability of pistachio oil packaged in glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The essential oils are added at 1500 and 3000 ppm concentrations into the oil stored for 80 days at 60 ºC under darkness. The results reveal that in all measured parameters, following order can be observed for antioxidant activity: 3000 ppm REO >3000 ppm PEO >100 ppm BHT >1500 ppm REO >1500 ppm mixed >1500 ppm PEO > control. The findings show that glass container is better than PET to retard oxidation process. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Esmaeilpour, A., Shakerardekani, A.

Effects of early harvest times on nut quality and physiological characteristics of pistachio (Pistacia vera) trees

(2018) Fruits, 73 (2), pp. 110-117. Cited 1 time.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85045027634&doi=10.17660%2fth2018%2f73.2.3&partnerID=40&md5=2d449b278f3f48152c17320f21a7f71f

DOI: 10.17660/th2018/73.2.3

AFFILIATIONS: Pistachio Research Center, Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rafsanjan, Iran;

Pistachio Safety Research Center, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Introduction – Pistachio harvesting at the appropriate time is one of the key factors affecting the product quality. The effects of early harvest time on quantitative and qualitative properties of pistachio nuts were investigated. Materials and methods – The ‘Ohadi’ pistachio cultivar was used as the market reference in Iran. Five harvest times (July 27, August 6, August 16, August 27 and September 6) were studied over four consecutive years (2008–2011) as treatments in the field experiment. Nut weight parameters, hull discoloration, hulling, cracked nuts, early-split nuts, kernel protein, mineral and chlorophyll contents were evaluated at each harvest time. Results and discussion – The fresh and dry nut weights showed the maximum and the minimum nut production rates for the last (September 6) and the first (July 27) harvest times, respectively. Percentages of hull discoloration, cracked nuts and immature nuts were significantly influenced by harvest time. The early-split nut percentage was not significantly different at the various harvest times. The maximum potassium, calcium, magnesium and nitrogen, protein and chlorophyll contents were obtained at the first harvest time. The growth of current year shoots, leaf area, percentages of vegetative and reproductive buds were not influenced by the harvest time, whereas the abscission of reproductive buds was minimum at the first harvest time and significantly different from all other times. Conclusion – Early harvesting of pistachio is preferable in terms of crop health indicators, nutritional value and color of the kernels. However, it is not preferable in terms of yield (nut and kernel production per hectare) for the producers, although potentially more sustainable. © ISHS 2018.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Afrousheh, M., Hokmabadi, H., Arab, H., Tajabadipour, A.

Evaluation of freezing damage in some pistachio seedling rootstocks

(2018) Journal of Nuts, 9 (1), pp. 77-83. Cited 1 time.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85049095714&partnerID=40&md5=f148107f11101b9762a10a900f86ab55

AFFILIATIONS: Pistachio Research Center, Horticulture Sciences Research Institute, Agriculture Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rafsanjan, Iran;

Damghan Pistachio Station, Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Semnan Province (Shahrood), AREEO, Iran

ABSTRACT: A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the freezing damage in some pistachio rootstocks by ion leakage and pH changes of leaked solution. A factorial experiment was carried out in randomized block designs (RBD) with three factors: Temperature (A) including 4 C, 0 C, -2 C, -4 C, -6 C, Time (B) including 3, 12, 24h, and Rootstock (C) including P. vera cv ‘Badami Zarand’ (V13) and ‘Sarakhs’ (S5), P. mutica (M1)and P. atlantica (A7). For this, one-year-old seedlings were kept at these five temperatures in incubator for 2 hours. Then in the first 24 hours in three hour intervals and during four days, EC and pH in leaked solution were measured daily. After four days the seedling samples were autoclaved at temperatures 105°C for 4 minutes to destroy all cell membrane. EC and pH of remaining solution were measured again and the percentage of ionic leakage was calculated. The results showed that the best time to evaluate the pH and ionic leakage was 24 hours after incubation of samples. Based on the results, ionic leakage dramatically increased with decreasing temperatures from 0°C to -6°C, while pH of leaked solution had no significant difference in 0°C and 4°C temperature treatments. When temperature reduced from 0°C to -6°C, like ionic leakage, pH greatly reduced. So the pH of the leaked solution could be an appropriate tool to study the freezing damage of pistachio rootstocks. Based on the results of pH and ionic leakage, P. mutica and P. atlantica were the most frost tolerant and sensitive rootstocks of this experiment, respectively. © 2017, Islamic Azad University.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Hajabdolahi, M., Moradi, M., Fani, S.R.

Effects of bacterial strains to inhibit growth of Phytophthora pistaciae under different electrical conductivities

(2018) Journal of Nuts, 9 (1), pp. 21-30.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85049065016&partnerID=40&md5=0920510d3819d6f0b2a5b5343b5c1720

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Pant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Damghan Branch, Damghan, Iran;

Pistachio Research Center, Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rafsanjan, Iran;

Pistachio Safety Research Center, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Plant Protection Research Department, Yazd Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Yazd, Iran

ABSTRACT: Root and crown rot (gummosis) is known as the most destructive disease affecting pistachio in Iran. The efficiency of bacterial strains to reduce the growth rate of Phytophthora pistaciae was studied under different electrical conductivities (EC, 0, 2, 4, 8, 12 ds/m). Soil and rhizo-sphere samples were collected from pistachio growing regions in Kerman province, Iran, dur-ing 2011 – 2012. Overall, the strains of bacteria were presented in all sampling areas in both infected and uninfected orchards. Out of 400 bacterial isolates, 63% and 37% were collected from soil and rhizosphere samples, respectively. Among 400 bacterial isolates, 19 exhibited the highest ability to reduce the growth of P. pistaciae in dual culture, volatile and non-volatile compounds, though by different degrees. The degrees of inhibitory activities against mycelial growth of P. pistaciae by Pseudomonas fluorescens strains ranged from 40 to 97.5%, 8 to 97.5% and 7.5 to 90% in dual culture, non-volatile and volatile assays, respectively. The Bacil-lus subtilis strains reduced the growth of P. pistaciae by 22-92.5%, 17-85%, 21-92.5% in dual culture, non-volatile and volatile assays, respectively. The negative effects of ECs on the growth of P. pistaciae in modified CMA were observed in 8 and 12 ECs. ECs had no effect until 8 ds/m on the growth of P. pistaciae, while the mycelial growth decreased by ECs higher than 8 ds/m. No mycelial growth was observed at EC 14 ds/m. There were significant differ-ences between different bacterial isolates, ECs and their interactions on the mycelial growth of P. pistaciae. The highest mycelial suppression belonged to isolates Nos. 123 and 112 in dual culture, volatile and non-volatile compounds test. More research is required to understand the native mechanisms involved in biological control under natural conditions in pistachio or-chards. © 2017, Islamic Azad University.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Sedaghat, R.

Economic investigation of poverty and income distribution in pistachio cultivating areas of Kerman province

(2018) Journal of Nuts, 9 (1), pp. 67-76. Cited 1 time.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85049101774&partnerID=40&md5=9840002abe51f39bef561058b4ebc16a

AFFILIATIONS: Agricultural Economics, Faculty Member, Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Pistachio Research Center, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization( AREEO), Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: The study of poverty and income in equality are the most important subjects of social/ economic research in agriculture sector. The present study focuses on poverty and income inequality among pistachio growers in Kerman province. Absolute poverty line, relative poverty line, poverty gap and intensity were calculated. Also income distribution was investigated using Ginny coefficient, Lorenz curve and income distribution index. The statistical community was all pistachio producers in Kerman province. Data collected through personally interviewing of 200 producer, using multi-stage cluster random sampling, during 2012-2015 cropping years. The results showed that absolute poverty line for pistachio growers in Kerman province was 24000000 (10 Rials) while, relative poverty line was 64922675(10 Rials), annually. Results also indicated that 30 percent of farmers were suffering from absolute poverty while, 57 percent from relative poverty. Income gap for poor pistachio growers under absolute poverty was 0.48, but for poor pistachio growers under relative poverty was 0.60. According to Lorenz curve, Ginny coefficient of 0.66 and income distribution index, it can be concluded that there is an un-fair income distribution among pistachio growers in study area. Finally supporting capital availability specially for small scale poor farmers through low interest credit, production subsidies and national development funds is suggested. © 2017, Islamic Azad University.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Pakdaman, N., Mostajeran, A.

Phosphate Limitation Alters Medicago–Sinorhizobium Signaling: Flavonoid Synthesis and AHL Production

(2018) Russian Journal of Plant Physiology, 65 (2), pp. 251-259.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85043483692&doi=10.1134%2fS1021443718020176&partnerID=40&md5=7814af8cf00078526ca2d97fcff23efe

DOI: 10.1134/S1021443718020176

AFFILIATIONS: Pistachio Research Center, Horticulture Sciences Research Institute, Agriculture Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rafsanjan, Iran;

LOEWE Center for Synthetic Microbiology, Philipps University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany;

Department of Biology, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

ABSTRACT: The legume plant Medicago truncatula Gaertn. can establish a symbiotic interaction with Sinorhizobium meliloti. One of the most limiting factors for symbiosis is phosphate (P) deficiency. Therefore, legumes and their symbiotic partners, rhizobia, have developed mechanisms to adapt to P restriction. In the non-symbiotic state, plants would up-regulate flavonoid biosynthesis via increasing the expression of chalcone synthase (chs), catalyzing the first step of flavonoid synthesis. Simultaneously, bacterial quorum sensing (QS) pathway can regulate the expression of certain genes involved in symbiotic functions of bacteria in response to P availability as well as bacterial population. Since both flavonoids and QS signaling molecules (N-acyl homoserine lactones, AHL) play important roles in the rhizobia-legume symbiosis, we evaluated these processes in the symbiotic state under different P concentrations and bacterial populations. In this study, by using real-time PCR and HPLC, we showed the expression of pt1 (phosphate transporter 1) and chs as well as luteolin production increased, in a time dependent manner, in plants following P limitation. Nod gene inducing flavonoids can up-regulate the bacterial QS pathway which results in an increase in AHL production, possibly to enhance symbiotic behaviors of rhizobia. It has been estimated that there is a feedback loop from bacterial AHL to flavonoid production pathway in legume plants. © 2018, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Shirani, H., Hosseinifard, S.J., Hashemipour, H.

Factors affecting cadmium absorbed by pistachio kernel in calcareous soils, southeast of Iran

(2018) Science of the Total Environment, 616-617, pp. 881-888. Cited 1 time.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85032355602&doi=10.1016%2fj.scitotenv.2017.10.233&partnerID=40&md5=f3e8457cfefef1bd8098593ffcb3c8df

DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.10.233

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Soil science, College of Agriculture, Shahrekord University and Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Iran;

Pistachio Research Center, Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Agriculture Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rafsanjan, Iran;

Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Cadmium (Cd) which does not have a biological role is one of the most toxic heavy metals for organisms. This metal enters environment through industrial processes and fertilizers. The main objective of this study was to determine the relationships between absorbed Cd by pistachio kernel and some of soil physical and chemical characteristics using modeling by stepwise regression and Artificial Neural Network (ANN), in calcareous soils in Rafsanjan region, southeast of Iran. For these purposes, 220 pistachio orchards were selected, and soil samples were taken from two depths of 0–40 and 40–80 cm. Besides, fruit and leaf samples from branches with and without fruit were taken in each sampling point. The results showed that affecting factors on absorbed Cd by pistachio kernel which were obtained by regression method (pH and clay percent) were not interpretable, and considering unsuitable vales of determinant coefficient (R2) and Root Mean Squares Error (RMSE), the model did not have sufficient validity. However, ANN modeling was highly accurate and reliable. Based on its results, soil available P and Zn and soil salinity were the most important factors affecting the concentration of Cd in pistachio kernel in pistachio growing areas of Rafsanjan. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Najarpour, H., Davarani, F.H., Moradi, M.

Efficacy of calcium salts on controlling phytophthora pistaciae, the cause of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) gummosis

(2018) Journal of Nuts, 9 (2), pp. 123-134.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85086115912&doi=10.22034%2fJON.2018.543141&partnerID=40&md5=c8fc04e592e692273d5d924dda6af28d

DOI: 10.22034/JON.2018.543141

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Plant Pathology, Rafsanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Pistachio Research Center, Plant Protection, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Research in plant disease management focuses on developing safe methods for humans and the environment in order to prevent the entry of harmful chemicals in food. Simple inorganic salts have low cost and are safe enough to be used as pesticides. Phytophthora genus causes crown and root rot (gummosis) in crops and leads to great losses in some pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) production areas annually. In this study, the potential efficacy of different calcium salts with various concentrations on Phytophthora pistaciae control was examined. This was done to find out a safe way of material usage instead of synthetic pesticides. Samples from the crown of a pistachio tree, with gummosis, were cultured on lima bean agar to isolate and purify the pathogen. P. pistaciae identification was done using the PCR method with ITS4 and ITS6 primers. Pathogenicity of isolate was confirmed through tests on apples, pistachio branches, and pistachio seedlings. Different concentrations of seven calcium salts (chloride, nitrate, sulfate, oxide, hydroxide, phosphate, and carbonate) were applied which reduced mycelial growth and 3000ppm of calcium oxide inhibited it completely. Most of the salts reduced the number of sporangia, zoospores, and cyst germination percentage. Calcium oxide and calcium hydroxide also caused hyphae branching and deformation of some sporangia. The results suggested that some calcium salts, especially calcium oxide, could control the growth of P. pistaciae in vitro. Future in vivo studies are needed to examine whether calcium salts can reduce the disease severity and spread of the pathogen in the environment if those are sprinkled over the soil around the infested crown. © 2018.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Rafsanjani, N.D., Daneshi, M., Shakerardekani, A.

Effect of freezing and vacuum packaging on quality properties of pistachio powder during storage

(2018) Journal of Nuts, 9 (2), pp. 169-179. Cited 1 time.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85059480871&partnerID=40&md5=19430568d299c756419fc576cf7845c4

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Food Science and Technology,Yazd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yazd, Iran;

Pistachio Research Center, Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Pistachio powder is a product used today in confectionery, ice cream, pistachio paste and other foods. Considering the higher rate of spoilage and oxidation in pistachio powder, developing methods to increase the shelf-life of this product is therefore important. In this study the effect of freezing and vacuum packaging on the quality characteristics of pistachio powder during storage was investigated. The effect of packaging conditions (vacuum or air packaging), storage temperature (25°C, -18°C) and storage time (0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 months) on chemical (free fatty acids, acid value, peroxide value), physical (moisture content and color indexes of La*, a* and ba*), and sensory (odor, taste, color, texture and overall acceptance) characteristics were studied. The results revealed that the peroxide value, acid value and free fatty acids in frozen and vacuum containers were lower than those packed without vacuum at room temperature. The results of sensory evaluation indicated a significant difference (p < 0.05) in samples.The best quality characteristics in terms of odor, taste, and overall acceptance belonged to the pistachio powder packed in vacuum and frozen conditions; however, in terms of texture, the containers packed and stored in ambient conditions showed better results. In all cases, the quality of pistachio powder decreased during the storage period. There was no significant difference between samples in moisture content, color indices of La*, aa*, ba* and sensory evaluation of color. It was generally found that packaging under vacuum and freezing could increase the shelf life of pistachio powder. © 2018 Islamic Azad University.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Forouzan, F., Jalali, M.A., Ziaaddini, M., Rad, H.H.

Effect of cold storage on biological traits of psix saccharicola (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae), an egg parasitoid of acrosternum arabicum (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

(2018) Journal of Economic Entomology, 111 (3), pp. 1144-1150. Cited 2 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85050251262&doi=10.1093%2fjee%2ftoy087&partnerID=40&md5=b088853dbd95ac48dc3ae6eb5355dce5

DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy087

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Crop Protection, College of Agriculture, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan, 7713936417, Iran;

Pistachio Research Center, Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rafsanjan, 7714613657, Iran

ABSTRACT: Psix saccharicola (Mani) (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) is a solitary egg parasitoid of the pistachio green stink bug, Acrosternum arabicum (Wagner) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), which is one of the most important pests of pistachio in Iran. Augmentation of P. saccharicola field populations using mass-reared individuals may provide an alternative to conventional pesticide use for pistachio green stink bug control. Cold storage is an important component of mass-rearing protocols for optimum timing of host egg parasitization and potentially extended storage of P. saccharicola pupae prior to adult emergence.The impact of cold storage on A. arabicum eggs for various time intervals at 4.0°C was investigated. Results indicated that host eggs stored at 4.0°C for up to 60 d could be exploited by P. sacchricola, whereas no offspring were produced when eggs were stored for 120 d. The emergence rates of the F1 and F2 generations declined with increased host egg storage time. Both sex ratio and survival rate of the F2 generation decreased as the refrigeration time of host eggs increased. The impact of cold storage on P. saccharicola pupae was evaluated. Reared pupae of P. saccharicola were held for 1 wk at three temperatures and compared with a control (27 ± 1°C). Psix saccharicola pupae were tolerant to cold storage at 8 and 12°C. Cold storage adversely affected mean adult emergence at 4°C, which decreased following low temperature exposure. Furthermore, mean percentage survivorship was unaffected by storage at low temperatures in the F1 generation, but was reduced at 4°C. The sex ratio of the F1 generation became more male-biased when held at lower storage temperatures. The highest female proportion was observed at 12°C. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Zeynadini-Riseh, A., Mahdikhani-Moghadam, E., Rouhani, H., Moradi, M., Saberi-Riseh, R., Mohammadi, A.

Effect of some probiotic bacteria as biocontrol agents of Meloidogyne incognita and evaluation of biochemical changes of plant defense enzymes on two cultivars of pistachio

(2018) Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 20 (1), pp. 179-191. Cited 3 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85041334317&partnerID=40&md5=fc7a9b6d455fdcc97fdc0cd19a3cbc39

AFFILIATIONS: Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran;

Pistachio Research Center, Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rafsanjan, Iran;

Plant Protection Department, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Agronomy and Plant Breeding Department, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Root-knot nematodes are the most economically important plant pathogens in pistachio. The ability of Pseudomonas fluorescens strains VUPF5, VUPF52, Bacillus cereus strain PRC95 and Bacillus subtilis strain PRC96 were tested as biocontrol agents for Meloidogyne incognita on the pistachio cultivars Sarakhs and Badami. The effect of these bacterial strains on defense-related enzymes activity in pistachio was also investigated. Pistachio seedlings of both cultivars were treated with bacterial strains and then were inoculated with 2000 second-stage juveniles of nematode after two days. Evaluations were made for changes of Peroxidase (POX), PolyPhenolOxidase (PPO), Phenylalanine Ammonia lyase (PAL) and Total Phenolic Content (TPC) determined at 2, 4, 7, and 10 Days After nematode Inoculation (DAI). Results showed improved activity of POX, PAL and PPO in both cultivars. The most significant result for POX activity in the treated seedlings belonged to Pseudomonas strain VUPF5 at 7 DAI for Sarakhs and 10 DAI for Badami. However, this strain displayed an increase in PAL activity at 2 and 4 DAI in Badami and Sarakhs, respectively. Seedlings treated by the Pseudomonas strain VUPF52 at 10 DAI had the highest PPO activity among cultivars. TPC concentration was slightly higher, by 8.4% at 4 DAI, in Sarakhs seedlings treated with VUPF5, but no significant increase could be seen in the Badami cultivar compared with the control. In another experiment, 4 months after nematode inoculation in seedlings of both cultivars treated by bacterial strains, numbers of galls, egg masses, and second juveniles decreased compared with the non-treated seedlings. © 2018, Tarbiat Modares University. All rights reserved.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Mehrnejad, M.R., Meleshko, J.Y., Korotyaev, B.A.

Morphological description and observations on the biology of Polydrusus davatchii (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Entiminae), a pest of pistachio trees in Iran

(2017) Biologia (Poland), 72 (9), pp. 1067-1074.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85032722393&doi=10.1515%2fbiolog-2017-0116&partnerID=40&md5=e39a746bbc6596a84dd4379b836b357c

DOI: 10.1515/biolog-2017-0116

AFFILIATIONS: Pistachio Research Center, P.O. Box 77175.435, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Belarusian State University, Nezavisimisty Ave., 4, Minsk, Belarus;

Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Universiterskaya nab. 1, St. Petersbburg, 199034, Russian Federation

ABSTRACT: Morphological description of the pistachio weevil, Polydrusus davatchii Hoffmann, 1956, is supplemented and an additional distinctive character of the subgenus Orodrusus to which this species belongs, the strongly reduced hair brushes on the tarsal segments, is reported. Polydrusus davatchii was known as a minor pest for pistachio trees in Iran until the first decade of the XXI century, but is considered now as an important herbivore in pistachio orchards in early spring. The adults were not found on other plants in the pistachio growing areas. Only females of this species are known. Polydrusus davatchii produces one generation a year and is distributed now almost throughout the pistachio cultivation areas in central and southern parts of Iran. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Slovak Academy of Sciences 2017.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Fotoohiyan, Z., Rezaee, S., Bonjar, G.H.S., Mohammadi, A.H., Moradi, M.

Biocontrol potential of Trichoderma harzianum in controlling wilt disease of pistachio caused by Verticillium dahliae

(2017) Journal of Plant Protection Research, 57 (2), pp. 185-193. Cited 2 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85026751410&doi=10.1515%2fjppr-2017-0025&partnerID=40&md5=73becff64bdb5c57c7e389dea6d9605a

DOI: 10.1515/jppr-2017-0025

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Plant Pathology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran;

Department of Plant Pathology, Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman, Iran;

Department of Plant Pathology, Pistachio Research Center, Horticultural Science Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae, is one of the most devastating diseases in pistachio orchards in the world including Iran. In search for an effective non-chemical strategy for the management of this disease, we evaluated the biocontrol potential of Trichoderma harzianum isolates obtained from the rhizosphere of healthy pistachio trees in different locations of the Kerman province of Iran against V. dahliae under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Dual culture tests in the laboratory were conducted in a completely randomized design using 72 T. harzianum isolates. Twenty isolates showed the highest in vitro antagonistic activity. The results indicated that all 20 isolates were capable of inhibiting the mycelial growth of V. dahliae significantly. Among them, isolates Tr8 and Tr19 were the most effective by 88.89% and 85.12% inhibition, respectively. Extracted cell free metabolites of all effective isolates also inhibited the growth of V. dahliae in the culture medium significantly. According to the results, isolates Tr4 and Tr6 inhibited fungal pathogen growth by 94.94% and 88.15% respectively, through production of non-volatile metabolites. In the evaluation of volatile metabolites, isolates Tr5 and Tr4 were the most effective by 26.27% and 24.49% growth inhibition, respectively. Based on the results of the in vitro experiments, the five most effective isolates were selected for evaluation under greenhouse conditions for their biocontrol potential in controlling Verticillium wilt of pistachio. Results of the greenhouse, (in vivo) experiments were positive and indicated that the occurrence of wilt disease in plants treated with the antagonists alone or in combination with pathogenic fungus was lower than in plants inoculated with pathogen alone. The overall results of this study suggest that Trichoderma fungal antagonist may be an effective biocontrol agent for the control of Verticillium wilt of pistachio. © 2017 Zeinab Fotoohiyan et al., published by De Gruyter Open 2017.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Haitlinger, R., Mehrnejad, M.R.

First record of hosts and new metric data for Erythraeus (Erythraeus) pistacicus Haitlinger, Mehrnejad & Šundić 2016 with notes on Erythraeus hosts

(2017) International Journal of Acarology, 43 (4), pp. 320-324. Cited 1 time.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85013452708&doi=10.1080%2f01647954.2017.1284900&partnerID=40&md5=638c1f05991bf68ccbb21c8fe875c3bb

DOI: 10.1080/01647954.2017.1284900

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Invertebrate Systematics and Ecology, Institute of Biology, Wrocław University of Evironmental and Life Sciences, Wrocław, Poland;

Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: The first records of Erythraeus associated with the psyllid Agonoscena pistaciae (Psyllioidea) and the mired Farsiana pistaciae (Hemiptera) are reported from Iran. This is the third time that an erythraeid mite has been reported from a psyllid. A list of erythraeid species found on different hosts is presented. Previously, 117 Erythraeus species have been described; however, hosts of only 17 species are known. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Najjar, S., Mohammadi, A., Asgari, B., Mohammadi, A.H.

Aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus species from saffron field soils in the South Khorasan province of Iran

(2017) Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 50 (7-8), pp. 349-360.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85018187504&doi=10.1080%2f03235408.2017.1316040&partnerID=40&md5=e570a4765dbf1ea5552d05627ef418da

DOI: 10.1080/03235408.2017.1316040

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran;

Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection, Tehran, Iran;

Iranian Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to isolate and identify Aspergillus species associated with saffron plants in the city of Birjand (South Khorasan Province, Iran) as well as to assess their aflatoxin B1 production. Sampling was performed during 2013–2014 crop season. Aspergillus species were isolated and purified using general and specific culture media. Growth rates and macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of the isolates were determined using yeast extract, Czapek yeast extract, malt extract and creatine sucrose agar media at 25 and 37 °C. DNA was extracted by the modified CTAB method and beta-tubulin, calmodulin and internal transcribed spacer genes were amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic position of the isolates was determined against other Aspergillus species. Thin layer chromatography was used to investigate the production of aflatoxin B1 by Aspergillus isolates. Based on the morphological characteristics, shape and colour of the colonies, and sequencing results, the isolates belonged to Aspergillus terreus, A. flavus, A. flavipes and A. niger species. Only A. flavus isolates were aflatoxin B1 producers. We concluded that the soil of the studied saffron fields contained several species of Aspergillus, with A. flavus significantly affecting crop production through contamination of the crop by aflatoxin. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Moradi, M., Mohammadi, A.H., Haghdel, M.

Efficiency of elite fungicide for control of pistachio gummosis

(2017) Journal of Nuts, 8 (1), pp. 11-20. Cited 3 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85045237909&partnerID=40&md5=2f78937d01b3c97ff3845a82dbe31f12

AFFILIATIONS: Pistachio Research Center, Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Several species of Phytophthora cause crown and root rot diseases of herbaceous and woody plants. Crown and root rot of pistachio trees cause significant damages in infected orchards. The effect of foliar application with Elite (fosetyl-Al) in 2 and 2.5 g/l was evaluated in greenhouse experiments. The frequency of mortality, fresh and dry weight of roots and shoots, height, intensity of crown root colonization using CAMA-PARP medium was determined. Under greenhouse experiments, foliar application with Elite increased height, fresh and dry weight of shoots and root either in inoculation with and without Phytophthora drechsleri. The effects of Elite were more pronounced in roots, which increased the fresh and dry weight of root 1.3 and 2.5 times compared to those not sprayed with Elite, respec-tively. On the other hand, the application of Elite before or on the day of inoculation significantly reduced the frequen-cy of mortality, which ranged from 35 to 90% (P ≤ 0.01). Crown and root colonization of pistachio seedling was affected by both the concentration of Elite and reduced the frequency of crown and root colonization of seedling. When fungicide and pathogen were applied at the same time, the frequency of colonization reduced to 18% and 36% for 2 and 2.5 g/l, respectively, and 43% and 60% when seedlings were treated with fungicide before P. drechsleri inocula-tions. The highest effect was seen in foliar application of Elite seven days before inoculation in 2.5 g/l. Further investi-gations have been conducted to understand the effect of Elite in infected trees as well as modeling of Elite application via soil drench, foliar application or trunk injection. © 2017, Islamic Azad University.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Shakerardekani, A.

Consumer acceptance and quantitative descriptive analysis of pistachio spread

(2017) Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 19 (1), pp. 85-95. Cited 1 time.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85008192157&partnerID=40&md5=8ce2af859402701caeaacfb6fa94744e

AFFILIATIONS: Pistachio Research Center, Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Pistachio nut (Pistacia vera L.) is one of the popular and nutritious tree nuts in the world. Pistachio spread is a new product which is made from pistachio paste, icing sugar, Soy Protein Isolate (SPI), and Red Palm Oil (RPO). This study involved sensory acceptability (by 32 assessors) using Hedonic scale and development of suitable terminology for describing pistachio spread using Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA). This study represents the first report on using QDA for sensory evaluation of pistachio products. The QDA method is used to determine the sensory profile of the two pistachio spreads with higher acceptability in the Hedonic scale (Formulation 12 including 50% pistachio paste, 30% icing sugar, and 20% RPO and Formulation 16 including 58.3% pistachio paste, 25% icing sugar, and 16.7% RPO). According to the results, RPO has a direct effect on the sensory acceptance of pistachio spread(P< 0.05). Eight panelists were selected for evaluation of pistachio spread. Twenty attributes (in terms of appearance (green color, visible particles, glossy), aroma (sweet, roasted, nutty, milky/creamy), flavor taste (beany, sweet, oily, bitter, nutty, creamy), texture (stickiness, oiliness, firmness, adhesiveness, spreadability), and aftertaste (bitter, astringency) were identified and developed for the product. No significant difference was observed in all pistachio spread formulations attributes, except for sweetness (P< 0.05). © 2017, Tarbiat Modares University. All rights reserved.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Tavanpour, T., Mehrnejad, M.R., Sarafrazi, A., Imani, S.

Distribution modelling of four scelionid egg parasitoids of green stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

(2017) Biologia (Poland), 72 (1), pp. 53-61.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85014000147&doi=10.1515%2fbiolog-2017-0010&partnerID=40&md5=2b545791cb1873c21154354932c2d631

DOI: 10.1515/biolog-2017-0010

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Entomology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran;

Pistachio Research Institute, P.O. Box 77175.435, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Insect Taxonomy Research Department, Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection, Tehran, Iran

ABSTRACT: Species distribution models are increasingly used in regional biodiversity assessments, pest management strategies, conservation biology, ecology and evolution. The Maximum Entropy model was applied to predict the potential distribution of four egg parasitoids, e.g., Psix saccharicola, Trissolcus agriope, Trissolcus basalis and Trissolcus volgensis (all Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) in Kerman province, south of Iran. Presence records of the species sampled during 2012-2014 were used alongside with seven environmental predictors. Besides describing the climatic profile of the species, the contribution percentage of the bioclimatic variables was explored. The accuracy and performance of distribution models were also evaluated by the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) index. According to Jackknife, the minimum temperature of the coldest month was the most important predictor for the P. saccharicola distribution model. The temperature annual range and the minimum temperature of the coldest quarter were the most effective variables of species distribution for T. agriope and T. basalis, respectively. The mean diurnal range was the most important environmental factor for T. volgensis. The AUC values, based on training data, were 0.87 for P. saccharicola, 0.92 for T. agriope, 0.95 for T. basalis, and 0.89 for T. volgensis, confirming the high accuracy of MaxEnt in predicting the distribution model of these scelionid wasps. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Slovak Academy of Sciences .

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Nazari, M., Ghanbarian, D., Shakerardekani, A., Maleki, A.

Investigating different methods of closed shell pistachios splitting and effects of freezing prior to drying on shell splitting percentage

(2017) Journal of Nuts, 8 (2), pp. 107-114.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85045259305&partnerID=40&md5=03918c46c178ca5c0ac420e2d3740ba0

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Mechanical Engineering of Biosystems, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran;

Pistachio Research Center, Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: In this study, different methods for shell splitting and the effect of freezing prior to drying on shell splitting percentage of pistachio were investigated. A completely randomized design was used to investigate the effects of different freezing temperatures (0, -6, -12 and -18°C), different drying temperatures (80, 90 and 100°C) and different cultivars (Akbari and Kalehghouchi) on shell splitting percentages. The results showed that both freezing and drying temperature significantly (p ≤ 0.05) affected the splitting of closed shells into open shells. The effect of cultivar was insignificant. The highest shell splitting percentage (16.56%) was observed with a freezing temperature of -18°C and when a drying temperature of 100°C was used. Freezing and drying temperatures did not significantly increase the number of isolated kernels. However, in most treatments, isolated kernels were observed. Despite the isolated kernels, The shell splitting percentage did not decrease in any of the treatment groups. The results showed that freezing prior to drying can increase the percentage of split pistachio nuts. Thus, by increasing the difference between the temperature of the freezing and the temperature of drying, the percentage of split pistachio increased. © 2017, Islamic Azad University.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Hasheminasab, H., Assad, M.T.

Genetic and multivariate phenotypic analyses of some selection indices in Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) cultivars under drought stress conditions

(2017) Genetika, 49 (2), pp. 705-715.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85033578674&doi=10.2298%2fGENSR1702705H&partnerID=40&md5=fa4d23b0af7c546b5680daf1c4784b82

DOI: 10.2298/GENSR1702705H

AFFILIATIONS: Pistachio Research Center, Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rafsanjan, Iran;

Department of Crop Production and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

ABSTRACT: Heritability and Genetic Gain are commonly used by plant breeders to estimate the accuracy of a selection index and used for measuring the response to selection. The aim of the present study was the genetic and phenotypic analyses of some physiological traits to identify the most reliable of them for selective breeding of pistachio cultivars under drought stress condition. Nineteen Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) cultivars with wide range of tolerance to drought stress were collected from across the orchards of Rafsanjan (Iran’s center of pistachio cultivation) and were used in randomized complete block design with three replications under two environmental conditions (normal and water stress) in 2011-2012. The results of genetic analysis showed that high magnitude of phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variation along with broad sense heritability and genetic gain were estimated in relative water protection (RWP), excised leaf water loss (ELWL), relative water content (RWC) and relative water loss (RWL) under drought stress condition, indicating that the inheritance of these traits can be mainly controlled by additive gene effects followed by reflecting the possibility of effective selection for genetic improvement of these traits. Path analysis revealed that RWP had the highest direct and RWL and WRC indirect effects on YSI. Principal component analysis indicated that selected indices were reliable for classification and identification of drought-tolerant pistachio cultivars and identified RWP, RWC and WRC as the best indicators for screening drought tolerant genotypes.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Esmaeilpour, A., Van Labeke, M.-C., Samson, R., Boeckx, P., Van Damme, P.

Variation in biochemical characteristics, water status, stomata features, leaf carbon isotope composition and its relationship to water use efficiency in pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) cultivars under drought stress condition

(2016) Scientia Horticulturae, 211, pp. 158-166. Cited 14 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84984617610&doi=10.1016%2fj.scienta.2016.08.026&partnerID=40&md5=41720247ced63722c0f04172d564ea76

DOI: 10.1016/j.scienta.2016.08.026

AFFILIATIONS: Ghent University, Faculty of Bio-Science Engineering, Coupure Links 653, Ghent, 9000, Belgium;

Iranian Pistachio Research Institute (IPRI), P.O. Box: 77175-435, Rafsanjan, Iran;

University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, Antwerp, 2020, Belgium;

Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Tropical Agrisciences, Prague, Czech Republic

ABSTRACT: Pistachio (P. vera L., Anacardiaceae) is cultivated in regions where soil water deficits and salinity conditions are higher than usual. Despite adult pistachio trees having been documented as being drought tolerant; there is only a limited understanding of the physiological mechanisms pistachio cultivars use to survive drought. We therefore, carried out a greenhouse experiment to evaluate the effects of three osmotic drought stress treatments including; control conditions (−0.1 MPa), moderate (−0.75 MPa) and severe drought (−1.5 MPa) stress, using PEG 6000 for 14 days with a subsequent two weeks recovery period. Carbohydrate contents, relative water content, water use efficiency, stomatal characteristics, and nitrogen and carbon isotope composition were evaluated in three Iranian pistachio cultivars, i.e. Akbari, Kaleghochi and Ohadi. Results revealed that the drought stress treatments induced osmotic adjustment by carbohydrate accumulation. Both drought stress treatments increased soluble carbohydrate and starch contents of the leaves. Relative water content was only affected by drought stress in Kaleghochi. Stomatal density and morphology varied with pistachio cultivars but was hardly affected by the stress treatments. Drought stress significantly increased the overall mean of water use efficiency (intrinsic and instantaneous WUE). There were no significant differences between the leaf carbon isotope compositions of all pistachio cultivars under stress. This indicates that this relation may not be used to determine pistachio cultivars with appropriate WUE via leaf carbon isotope composition within the time frame of the experiment. Leaf nitrogen isotope composition decreased under drought stress regardless off the cultivar. © 2016

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Haitlinger, R., Mehrnejad, R., Šundić, M.

Erythraeus (Erythraeus) pistacicus sp. n. (Trombidiformes: Erythraeidae) from southern Iran, and notes on other Erythraeus spp.

(2016) Biologia (Poland), 71 (7), pp. 804-808. Cited 2 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84983787904&doi=10.1515%2fbiolog-2016-0092&partnerID=40&md5=0e0ad544a0d6bc624d77f02f51fc30ee

DOI: 10.1515/biolog-2016-0092

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Invertebrate Systematics and Ecology, Institute of Biology, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Kozuchowska 5B, Wroclaw, 51 631, Poland;

Pistachio Research Institute, P.O. Box 77175.435, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Montenegro, Cetinjski put b. b., Podgorica, 20000, Montenegro

ABSTRACT: A new erythraeid mite species, Erythraeus (Erythraeus) pistacicus sp. n., is described from southern Iran based on larvae. Corrected data and new measurements and meristic data for E. (E.) hilariae, E. (E.) akbariani and E. (E.) sabrinae are given. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Slovak Academy of Sciences.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Jazaeri, M., Akhgar, A., Sarcheshmehpour, M., Mohammadi, A.H.

Bioresource Efficacy of Phosphate Rock, Sulfur, and Thiobacillus Inoculum in Improving Soil Phosphorus Availability

(2016) Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 47 (11), pp. 1441-1450. Cited 2 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84977536094&doi=10.1080%2f00103624.2016.1179750&partnerID=40&md5=03a36a2ed2f24762d9aeb6c711adaf48

DOI: 10.1080/00103624.2016.1179750

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Soil Science, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Department of Soil Science, Shahid Bahonoar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran;

Horticultural Science Research Institute, Pistachio Research Center, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: In order to improve the effectiveness of phosphate rock as phosphorus fertilizer, elemental sulfur and Thiobacillus have been evaluated as amendments. First, Thiobacillus was isolated from different soil samples. Then, a greenhouse pot experiment was conducted using a completely randomized factorial design with three factors included: elemental sulfur at four levels of 0, 1000, 2000, and 5000 mg kg−1; phosphate rock at three levels of 0, 1000 and 2000 mg kg−1; four Thiobacillus inoculums (T1, T2, T3, T4) and without inoculation (T0) in three replications. Results showed that all the four Thiobacillus inoculums increased significantly extractable soil-P. Combined application of phosphate rock and sulfur in equal proportion (1:1) along with inoculum Thiobacillus had a significant effect in improving phosphorus availability in soil. Combined application of sulfur (at rates of 1000 and 2000 mg kg–1) and Thiobacillus significantly increased phosphorus uptake by plants as compared to the control. © 2016 Taylor & Francis.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Hayat, M., Mehrnejad, M.R.

Ooencyrtus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), egg parasitoids of the pistachio green stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Iran

(2016) Zootaxa, 4117 (2), pp. 198-210. Cited 3 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84974597071&doi=10.11646%2fzootaxa.4117.2.4&partnerID=40&md5=873637d65b5c72e95fa09666f0c3dc59

DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4117.2.4

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Zoology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, 202 002, India;

Pistachio Research Institute, P.O. Box 77175-435, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: This paper deals with three species of Ooencyrtus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) obtained from eggs of the green stink bug, Brachynema germarii (Kolenati) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) infesting pistachio plants in Iran. Two new species, Ooencyrtus iranicus Hayat & Mehrnejad, sp. nov. and O. pistaciae Hayat & Mehrnejad, sp. nov., are described, and O. telenomicida (Vassiliev) is newly recorded from Iran, redescribed and illustrated. A key to some species considered similar to the species treated here is also given. Copyright © 2016 Magnolia Press.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Khodaparast, S.A., Mohammadi, A.H., Haghdel, M., Masigol, H.

Taxonomy and phylogenetic position of Phyllactinia takamatsui, a newly described powdery mildew on cotoneaster, based on molecular and morphological data

(2016) Mycological Progress, 15 (5), art. no. 49, .

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84964422563&doi=10.1007%2fs11557-016-1191-y&partnerID=40&md5=c2326e8be13461b08ea7382ffadde412

DOI: 10.1007/s11557-016-1191-y

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran;

Horticultural Science Research Institute, Pistachio Research Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: The newly recognised powdery mildew species Phyllactinia takamatsui on Cotoneaster nummularius (Rosaceae) is described and illustrated. This species, collected in Kerman Province, Iran, is well characterised by its conidial morphology and rDNA ITS sequences clearly different from allied species. Conidia are broadly ellipsoid to subcylindrical, i.e. they are not clavate-spathuliform as in most Phyllactinia species. The rDNA ITS sequence analysis showed that this species is closely allied to other species described on hosts belonging to Rosaceae, such as Ph. mali and Ph. pyri-serotinae. The ITS sequence of P. takamatsui was 92 to 94 % similar to that of the closest known relatives. The new species is described in detail, illustrated and compared with other similar taxa. © 2016, German Mycological Society and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Esmaeilpour, A., Van Damme, P.

Evaluation of seed soaking times on germination percentage, germination rate and growth characteristics of pistachio seedlings

(2016) Acta Horticulturae, 1109, pp. 107-112. Cited 3 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84964555771&doi=10.17660%2fActaHortic.2016.1109.17&partnerID=40&md5=e5d7b1419f04af9191d81b9dc9220f61

DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2016.1109.17

AFFILIATIONS: Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute (IPRI), PO Box: 77175-435, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, Ghent, 9000, Belgium

ABSTRACT: In traditional pistachio cultivation, prior to sowing seeds the latter are soaked in water for different times as farmers claim that this will contribute to germination. To our best knowledge, this is the first attempt to evaluate the effect of different water-soaking time periods on germination in pistachio. For this purpose, seeds of pistachio (P. vera L. ‘Badami’) were treated with water for 1, 6, 12 and 24 h. We monitored germination percentage, germination rate, mean time for germination rate, and seedling height at different stages, number of leaves, shoot and root dry weight, and trunk diameter. Our results indicated that germination percentage and rate significantly increased and seedling height increased in seeds, which were treated for 24 h. Although, plant root dry weight significantly decreased in seeds of this treatment, mean times for germination (MTG) values were not found to be statistically significant between treatments. We observed that the 6 h soaking treatment led to an increase in shoot and root dry weight, and trunk diameter. Also leaf numbers and root length values were highest in the 1 h soaked seeds, although differences were not significant. Positive relationship was observed between the plant shoot length and plant leaf number.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Esmaeilpour, A., Van Labeke, M.-C., Van Damme, P., Samson, R.

Variation of relative water content, water use efficiency and stomatal density during drought stress and subsequent recovery in pistachio cultivars (Pistacia vera L.)

(2016) Acta Horticulturae, 1109, pp. 113-119. Cited 3 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84964452667&doi=10.17660%2fActaHortic.2016.1109.18&partnerID=40&md5=13714811eba588b4c2f1c830a9f00cc1

DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2016.1109.18

AFFILIATIONS: Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute, PO Box: 77175-435, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Ghent University, Coupure links 635, Ghent, 9000, Belgium;

University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, Antwerp, 2020, Belgium;

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Dept. of Crop Science and Agroforestry in the Tropics and Subtropics, Prague, Czech Republic

ABSTRACT: Pistachio species belong to the Anacardiaceae family. Pistacia vera L., cultivated pistachio, is the most important species in the genus. Pistachio is a major orchard crop in Iran, whereby ‘Akbari’, ‘Kaleghochi’ and ‘Ohadi’ are very common cultivars. Pistachio has a high resistance to soil drought conditions but differences exist between cultivars. This greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the effects of an osmotic drought stress (Ψs=-0.75 and Ψs=-1.5 MPa) on relative water content (RWC), water use efficiency (WUE) and stomatal characteristics in the cultivars mentioned above. Results reveal that the different osmotic drought stress levels applied significantly lowered RWC compared to a well-watered control. At the same time, the treatments significantly increased WUE compared to the control. WUE varied in different cultivars but differences were not significant. There were no significant differences between the different drought stress levels as for their influence on stomatal length, width and numbers, but cultivars showed different stomatal characteristics between them: ‘Ohadi’ and ‘Kaleghochi’ had widest stomata, whereas ‘Akbari’ had most stomata. In conclusion, drought stress treatments lowered RWC and leaf water potential. Therefore, under osmotic stress conditions, pistachio cultivars showed drought tolerance mechanism to cope with water deficiency. Also the results of this study show that drought stress treatments increased WUE. However, further research in field condition and under more severe drought treatments is needed to confirm this survey’s research.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Mohammadpour, M., Ziaaddini, M., Jalali, M.A., Hashemirad, H., Mohammadi-Khoramabadi, A.

Egg parasitoids of the pistachio green stink bug, Brachynema germari (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Kerman province, Iran

(2016) Zoology and Ecology, 26 (1), pp. 28-34. Cited 6 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84956948532&doi=10.1080%2f21658005.2015.1120544&partnerID=40&md5=184cbf859d502676647f36596d6ed49a

DOI: 10.1080/21658005.2015.1120544

AFFILIATIONS: Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Department of Plant Protection, Pistachio Research Institute of Iran, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Department of Plant Production, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources of Darab, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

ABSTRACT: Egg parasitoids of the pistachio stink bug, Brachynema germari (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) were collected in pistachio orchards in Kerman province, Iran using rearing and egg-trap methods. The rearing of egg parasitoids confirmed the presence of two families, Scelionidae (Hymenoptera: Proctotrupoidea) and Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). In total, seven species representing two genera of the family Scelionidae (Psix and Trissolcus) and two species belonging to the genus Ooencyrtus of the family Encyrtidae were collected and identified. Four species of them, i.e. T. deserticola, T. niceppe, T. oobius and O. egeria, are newly recorded from Iran. Seven new host-parasitoid associations were determined. An identification key to these species is provided. © 2016 Nature Research Centre.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Kazemi, H., Pour, A.A.

Evaluation of Iran Pistachio research institute informing in terms of farmers and determine effective ways of informing

(2016) International Business Management, 10 (15), pp. 3209-3214.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84988589143&partnerID=40&md5=2ce01d6b8dc6e4e245439f82a9af2835

AFFILIATIONS: Pistachio Research Institute, University of Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: The subject of this study is to evaluate Research Institute informing from the perspective of farmers Pistachio and determine the effectiveness of the methods notification. Statistical population included all farmers Rafsanjan Pistachio cultivation that refer to Agriculture Organization Pistachio and Pistachio Research Institute in the study period. The number of sample based on the Cochran formula are 187 farmers. The research data collection tool was a questionnaire. To check assumptions, test results show that the correlation between “mobile phone text messages” and “social networking” with input variables are significant and the direct relationship exists between them. But, in other cases there is no significant relationship between the variables. Correlation between the “social networking” and “visiting the Research Institute” with performed variable was significant and direct relationship exists between them. But, in other cases there is no significant relationship between the variables. Correlation between the “mobile phone SMS”, “website Pistachio Research Institute” and “social networking” whit effects and consequences variable were significant and direct relationship exists between them. But in other cases, there is no significant relationship between the variables. One-sample t-test results showed that the notification Pistachio Research Institute at the appropriate level. © Medwell Journals, 2016.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Sohrabi, M., Mohammadi, H., Mohammadi, A.H.

Influence of AM Fungi, glomus mosseae and glomus intraradices on chickpea growth and root-rot disease caused by fusarium solani f. sp. pisi under greenhouse conditions

(2015) Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 17, pp. 1919-1929. Cited 8 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84952056401&partnerID=40&md5=164f0be2565e4810560e1814eca1fb58

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Plant Protection, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran;

Horticultural Science Research Institute, Pistachio Research Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: In the present study, the effect of two species of AMF, Glomus mosseae and Glomus intraradices, alone and in combination, was evaluated on the growth criteria, chlorophyll content, and root rot disease caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi, on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under greenhouse conditions. Chickpea seeds were sown into pots containing 100 g of AMF inoculum (more than 1,000 propagules g-1) and, after four weeks, root of seedlings were inoculated with conidia suspension (106 conidia mL-1) of F. solani f. sp. pisi. Six weeks after pathogen inoculation, shoot and root dry weight, shoot height, chlorophyll content and mycorrhizal and Fusarium colonization were measured. Results showed that inoculation of G. mosseae was more effective than G. intraradices and dual inoculations (G. intraradices+G. mosseae) on the above criteria. Inoculation of F. solani f. sp. pisi without AMF treatments reduced shoot height, shoot and root dry weight, and chlorophyll content significantly compared with the control. In the presence of AMF, root colonization by F. solani f. sp. pisi and disease severity decreased and individual inoculation with G. mosseae was more effective than the other treatments. Inoculation of G. mosseae and G. intraradices caused a significant increase in plant height, shoot and root dry weight, and chlorophyll content of pathogen-inoculated plants compared with inoculated chickpea plants with F. solani f. sp. pisi. Based on the results, application of G. mosseae was found to be the best for reducing the root rot disease and improving plant growth parameters of chickpea, followed by G. intraradices and dual inoculations. © 2015, Tarbiat Modares University. All rights reserved.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Shakerardekani, A., Karim, R., Ghazali, H.M., Chin, N.L.

Oxidative Stability of Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) Paste and Spreads

(2015) JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 92 (7), pp. 1015-1021. Cited 4 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84933371708&doi=10.1007%2fs11746-015-2668-6&partnerID=40&md5=c74fa7eb6d118367b7a0fb73edc8b627

DOI: 10.1007/s11746-015-2668-6

AFFILIATIONS: Iran Pistachio Research Institute, P.O. Box 77175-435, Rafsanjan, Kerman, Iran;

Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia;

Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia;

Department of Process and Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

ABSTRACT: In this study, pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) spread was prepared using pistachio paste, icing sugar, and red palm oil. Pistachio paste, pistachio spread without emulsifier, and pistachio spread with 1.5 % monoglycerides (Dimodan HP-M, Danisco, Malaysia) were investigated to determine their oxidative stability by subjecting them to accelerated autoxidation conditions (60 °C). Pistachio paste and pistachio spread exhibit a great susceptibility to lipid oxidation due to their high-fat content. However, it was found that the high oleic and palmitic contents of the oil increase its stability. In all the pistachio products examined, Totox values were higher than 10 (the maximum permitted level) after 25 days of storage. In none of the products was (E,E)-2,4-decadienal detected on day 0. After 25 days of storage, however, the peak area percentages rose to 0.13, 0.19, and 0.18 in pistachio paste, pistachio spread without emulsifier, and pistachio spread with emulsifier, respectively. Based on color investigations, the a value (i.e., less greenish) was increased in all the pistachio samples at the end of the storage period. Based on the results obtained from sensory evaluations as well as GC-MS, free fatty acid (FFA), and color measurements, it may be concluded that the shelf life of pistachio products is 20 days at 60 °C. © 2015 AOCS.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Esmaeilpour, A., Van Labeke, M.-C., Samson, R., Van Damme, P.

Osmotic stress affects physiological responses and growth characteristics of three pistachio cultivars

(2015) Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 37 (6), art. no. 123, 14 p. Cited 5 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84930635310&doi=10.1007%2fs11738-015-1876-x&partnerID=40&md5=16727c5b0c8c2e6c7e2c7bd4ed5cd455

DOI: 10.1007/s11738-015-1876-x

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Plant Production, Ghent University, Coupure links 653, Ghent, 9000, Belgium;

Iranian Pistachio Research Institute (IPRI), P.O. Box: 77175-435, Rafsanjan, Iran;

University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, Antwerp, 2020, Belgium;

Department of Crop Sciences and Agroforestry in the Tropics and Subtropics, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Prague, Czech Republic

ABSTRACT: Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) has a high tolerance to drought and soil salinity. Although adult pistachio trees are well known to be drought tolerant, the studies on physiological adaptation of pistachio cultivars to drought are limited. Therefore, three pistachio cultivars, i.e., Akbari, Kaleghochi, and Ohadi were subjected to three osmotic drought stress treatments: control (−0.1 MPa), moderate (−0.75 MPa) and severe drought (−1.5 MPa) stress using PEG 6000 for a 14-day period. All drought stress treatments decreased net photosynthesis (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), and transpiration rate (E), but Ohadi maintained better its photosynthetic capacity compared to Akbari and Kaleghochi. Maximum quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm), effective PSII quantum yield (ΦPSII) and photochemical quenching (qP) were also reduced. The chlorophyll fluorescence parameters indicated that Akbari was more susceptible to the applied drought stress. Drought stress levels decreased chlorophyll pigments, fresh weight, stem elongation, leaf nitrogen content (N), leaf water potential and increased water use efficiency (WUE). Proline increased strongly under drought stress for Akbari. After 2 weeks of stress a recovery of 2 weeks was applied. This period was insufficient to fully restore the negative effects of the applied stress on the studied cultivars. Based on the reduction of photosynthesis and the increase of the proline content Akbari seems more sensitive to the applied drought stress. © 2015, Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Arzani, K., Hokmabadi, H.

Growth response of two young pistachio (Pistacia vera l.) rootstock seedlings to boron excess in irrigation water under a soilless culture System

(2015) Acta Horticulturae, 1062, pp. 67-70.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84922136985&doi=10.17660%2fActaHortic.2015.1062.7&partnerID=40&md5=29e7fa4df0a186ec60edf044e17f8acd

DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2015.1062.7

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Horticultural Science, Trabiat Modares University (TMU), P.O. Box 14155-336, Tehran, Iran;

Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: In order to explore and determine the effects of Boron excess in irrigation water on growth response of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.), one-year-old rootstock seedlings were used. Seeds of two pistachio cultivars ‘Badami-e-zarand’ and ‘Ghazvini’ were collected from the Pistachio Research Institute (PRI) collection orchard in 2001 growing season and sown after 40 days of cold storage at 4°C. One year old grown seedlings were used for this experiment as rootstock seedlings during 2002 growing season. Boron at the concentrations of 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg L-1 was applied at three days intervals in the sand culture and irrigation system using half-strength Hoagland nutrient solution. The response of pistachio rootstocks seedlings to applied treatments were evaluated at 14 day intervals with leaf water potential (Φleaf), leaf temperature, stem diameter and plant height and leaf chlorophyll florescence measurements. In addition, the mineral content of the leaves, stem and roots was recorded at the end of experiment. Results showed that two months after treatments started with increasing of boron concentration more than 60 mg L-1 whole plant biomass, leaf area and plant height decreased. Leaf water relations and gas exchange of seedlings were not affected by applied treatments, although leaf nitrogen content of treated plants was lower than in the control. In addition, the concentration of leaf, stem and root Mg, K and P was not affected by applied treatments in comparison with the control, but the amount of Ca was decreased. The reduction of Ca was higher in the leaves and roots than in the stem of treated plants. In conclusion, ‘Badami-e-zarand’ rootstock showed better growth response to Boron excess in irrigation water under soilless culture system.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Sedaghati, N., Hokmabadi, H.

Optimizing pistachio irrigation management using the relationship between Echo-Physiological characteristics and water stress

(2015) Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 17 (1), pp. 189-200. Cited 1 time.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84919624939&partnerID=40&md5=289206431ee4d39ad533c97699fa1dd8

AFFILIATIONS: Jehad Agriculture organization, Damghans Pistachio Research Station, Damghan, Iran;

Jehad Agriculture Organization, Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: In this research, some of the echo-physiological characteristics of pistachio trees were studied to understand crop response to drought stress and determine the best irrigation interval. This experiment was carried out in an orchard with a sandy loam textured soil and a commercial cultivar of pistachio named Ouhadi grafted on Pistacia vera L. rootstock for three years. The irrigation system selected was surface flooding with intervals of 30, 50, 80, and 110 days. These intervals were chosen so as to resemble common irrigation intervals of pistachio orchards in the region. This enabled a comparison between the best and worst conditions of trees in respect to drought stress. Total irrigation water received was a constant depth of water to all treatments. Quantitative and qualitative yield such as weight of fresh and dry nuts, percent of blank and split nuts, and number of nuts per ounce, vegetative and echo-physiological characteristics were considered and measured. In terms of yield quantity and quality, the results showed vegetative and echo-physiological attributes to be significantly different between the treatments of 30, 80 and 110 days irrigation intervals. This means that with an increase in irrigation intervals and considering soil water holding capacity, soils were not able to provide enough moisture for the plant to carry out its normal metabolic activities. However, in the prolonged irrigation intervals, there were not much differences between treatments i.e. the pistachio tree could adapt itself to the naturally occurring environmental stress conditions. © 2015, Tarbiat Modares University. All rights reserved.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Shakerardekani, A., Shahedi, M.

Effect of soapwort root extract and glycyrrhizin on consumer acceptance, texture, and oil separation of pistachio halva

(2015) Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 17 (6), pp. 1495-1505. Cited 4 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84945966006&partnerID=40&md5=1887d79bc9d7cc684a512476a1e63062

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Food Technology, Iran Pistachio Research Institute, P. O. Box: 77175-435, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Pistachio nut (Pistacia vera L.) is one of the most delicious and nutritious nuts in the world. In order to increase the added value of the pistachio nuts, it is necessary to develop new products to meet consumer needs. This is the first paper on pistachio halva. The product was developed using pistachio paste (as main ingredient), mixture of sugarglucose, egg white and citric acid. The effect of soapwort root extract (from saponaria officinalis) and Glycyrrhizin (from Glycyrrhiza glabra) as whitening and emulsifying agent in three levels (0.00, 0.10, and 0.15%) on the oil separation, consumer acceptance, and texture of pistachio halva was investigated. Sensory evaluation was carried out after 4 months storage at 20±2°C. There was a significant difference (P< 0.05) between samples with and without soapwort and glycyrrhizin. The oil separation (R= 0.595, P=0.001), from halva were moderately correlated to the hardness. The sensory texture of halva was negatively correlated to the hardness (R= -0.694, P= 0.000) and oil separation (R= -0.730, P= 0.000). The sensory color (R= 0.652, P= 0.000) of halva was moderately correlated to the a-value. It is recommended that mixture of 0.10% soapwort root extract and 0.10% commercial Glycyrrhizin be used for the pistachio halva production. Using combination of soapwort root extract and Glycyrrhizin in the formulation of pistachio halva prevents oil separation from the product and increases its consumer acceptance. Development of pistachio halva would potentially increase the food uses of nuts and introduce consumers with a healthier non-animal snack food. © 2015, Tarbiat Modares University. All rights reserved.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Khormali, F., Rezaei, F., Rahimzadeh, N., Hosseinifard, S.J., Dordipour, E.

Rhizosphere-induced weathering of minerals in loess-derived soils of Golestan Province, Iran

(2015) Geoderma Regional, 5, pp. 34-43. Cited 6 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84925460015&doi=10.1016%2fj.geodrs.2015.02.002&partnerID=40&md5=7d9ef76c8fe3554ec4ca2be96a4ec812

DOI: 10.1016/j.geodrs.2015.02.002

AFFILIATIONS: Dept. of Soil Sciences, Faculty of Water and Soil Engineering, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran;

Pistachio Research Center, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Weathering of minerals is the major source of nutrients to plants. The rhizosphere can play a central role in the weathering of minerals through the release of acid exudates that drive hydrolysis of minerals. Although many studies have examined the weathering of pure natural industrial minerals in rhizosphere, information on the weathering of clay and silt minerals from soils is limited. This study examined the weathering and K release of minerals in clay and silt fraction in the rhizosphere of corn. Growth medium was a mixture of quartz sand as filling materials and clay and silt fraction of four dominant soils formed on loess parent material with different characteristics (i.e., Aridisols, Alfisols, Inceptisols and Mollisols). During 100 days of the experiment, plants were irrigated with distilled water and complete and K-free nutrient solution as needed. At the end of cultivation, plants were harvested and their K uptake was measured. Clay and silt fractions were separated from quartz sand and analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and XRF both before and after the experiment. Intense weathering of mica and chlorite was observed in silt fraction of Aridisols and Mollisols. The high acidity of the rhizosphere induced by root exudates has resulted in the release of structural K from mineral lattice. In contrast to the silt fraction, the X-ray patterns of the clay fraction showed minor changes following plant growth such as the formation of mixed layer mica-vermiculite and vermiculite. The K content extracted by corn was significantly greater for silt than the clay sizes. The highly weatherable silt sized minerals therefore, could be regarded as the major source of nutrients to plants. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Khatamidoost, Z., Jamali, S., Moradi, M., Saberi Riseh, R.

Effect of Iranian strains of Pseudomonas spp. on the control of root-knot nematodes on Pistachios

(2015) Biocontrol Science and Technology, 25 (3), pp. 291-301. Cited 2 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84911061320&doi=10.1080%2f09583157.2014.973369&partnerID=40&md5=7a184647b06110d8bfd9c27bcb5d1f43

DOI: 10.1080/09583157.2014.973369

AFFILIATIONS: Plant Protection Department, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran;

Plant Protection Department, Iranian Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Plant Protection Department, Vali-E-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: The role of some Iranian strains of Pseudomonas spp. as biocontrol agents against Meloidogyne incognita and their ability to colonise pistachio roots was investigated. The results of in vitro experiments indicated that all tested bacteria produced significant suppression of M. incognita and showed that all strains were able to kill M. incognita juveniles with strain VUPf428 achieving about 99% mortality at 72 h. The results of in vivo treatments indicated that the best strains that could build high populations in soil infested with nematodes were VUPf5, VUPf52 and VUPf205. These isolates also caused highest reduction in galling and nematode multiplication in a greenhouse test although all strains native to Iran could colonise pistachio roots in pots. Some strains could produce secondary metabolites such as siderophores, proteases and volatile metabolites at high population levels. © 2014, Taylor & Francis.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Mehrnejad, M.R., Vahabzadeh, N., Hodgson, C.J.

Relative suitability of the common pistachio psyllid, Agonoscena pistaciae (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae), as prey for the two-spotted ladybird, Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

(2015) Biological Control, 80, pp. 128-132. Cited 5 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84912031136&doi=10.1016%2fj.biocontrol.2014.10.005&partnerID=40&md5=500f82159d420afa09651bea757fc86c

DOI: 10.1016/j.biocontrol.2014.10.005

AFFILIATIONS: Pistachio Research Institute, P.O. Box 77175.435, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Department of Biodiversity and Biological Systematics, The National Museum of Wales, Cardiff, Wales, CF1 3NP, United Kingdom;

Aftab Plant Protection Clinic, No 228, Sh. Beheshti St., Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: The suitability of Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt &amp; Lauterer as a prey for Adalia bipunctata (Linnaeus) was evaluated by studying the predator’s development and reproduction on this species in comparison to reference diets of nymphs of Myzus persicae (Sulzer) and eggs of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller. Both larval and adult A. bipunctata fed voraciously on A. pistaciae. The development time of the ladybird was shorter when fed on M. persicae and A. pistaciae and longer on E. kuehniella. The survival rate was 87% on M. persicae and 85% on A. pistaciae, both significantly greater than on E. kuehniella eggs (63%). The ladybirds were heaviest at eclosion and their fecundity was higher on M. persicae than on A. pistaciae or E. kuehniella. Both the aphid and psyllid diets yielded higher R0, rm values and lower T and DT values than E. kuehniella eggs. Based on total development time, immature survival and adult fecundity, the relative suitability for A. bipunctata was M. persicae&gt;A. pistaciae&gt;E. kuehniella. When ladybirds were reared on psyllids, they showed no preference between aphid or psyllid diets, but when raised on M. persicae, they preferred an aphid diet. A field experiment showed that A. bipunctata preferred to oviposit on pistachio trees at a height of 150-200cm, i.e. towards the top. The results indicate that A. pistaciae constitutes a complete food for A. bipunctata, supporting both completed development and successful reproduction. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Esmaeili, M., Yolmeh, M., Shakerardakani, A., Golivari, H.

A central composite design for the optimizing lipase and protease production from Bacillus subtilis PTCC 1720

(2015) Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, 4 (3), pp. 349-354. Cited 11 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84946492600&doi=10.1016%2fj.bcab.2015.05.002&partnerID=40&md5=85cc57e19ba9e1ba4849153fe866b10b

DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2015.05.002

AFFILIATIONS: Iranian Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Department of Food Science and Technology, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran;

Department of Food Science and Technology, Azad Islamic University of Damghan, Damghan, Iran

ABSTRACT: In the present study, the producing condition of lipase and protease from Bacillus subtilis PTCC 1720 was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). A central composite design (CCD) was used to evaluate the interactive effect of the enzyme production conditions on the lipase activity (LA), protease activity (PA) and biomass of B. subtilis PTCC 1720. Independent variables including temperature, sucrose, peptone, and corn oil concentration were studied. According to the results, the optimal enzyme production condition was achieved with temperature of 43.4. °C, sucrose of 20. g/L, peptone of 20. g/L, and corn oil of 4. mL/L. In this conditions the LA, PA, and biomass were predicted 3.16. U/mL, 1744.6. U/mL, and 3.03. g/L, respectively. The experimental and predicted values of the LA, PA, and biomass show a good agreement with one another, with a high degree of accuracy of the models. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Fani, S.R., Moradi, M., Probst, C., Zamanizadeh, H.R., Mirabolfathy, M., Haidukowski, M., Logrieco, A.F.

A critical evaluation of cultural methods for the identification of atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus isolates for aflatoxin mitigation in pistachio orchards of Iran

(2014) European Journal of Plant Pathology, 140 (4), pp. 631-642. Cited 4 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84939895596&doi=10.1007%2fs10658-014-0499-1&partnerID=40&md5=3427a5208cec95fb5f43198326976b70

DOI: 10.1007/s10658-014-0499-1

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Plant Pathology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran;

Iranian Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Irrigated Agriculture Research and Extension Center, Washington State University, Prosser, WA, United States;

Iranian Plant Protection Research Institute, Tehran, Iran;

National Research Council Institute of Sciences of Food Production, Bari, Italy

ABSTRACT: Aflatoxin contamination of tree nuts is a growing concern for pistachio producing countries. Development of competitive exclusion strategies through application of atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus isolates is a highly effective route of natural aflatoxin mitigation. Aflatoxin assays conducted on a high number of native A. flavus isolates are a first step to identify potential biological control isolates. Many cultural methods for the rapid and visual identification of atoxigenic A. flavus isolates have been described. The current study identified atoxigenic A. flavus isolates from Iranian pistachio orchards using and contrasting cultural, analytical and molecular methods. Ammonium vapour (AV) and fluorescence detection (FD), two rapid aflatoxin assays, were directly compared using various media preparations to screen 524 A. flavus isolates obtained from Iranian pistachio orchards. Percentages of false negatives were high using FD assays for all media preparations ranging from 13 to 15 %. This in contrast to AV assays. Here incidences of false negatives ranged from 0 % (using coconut agar medium) to 7.2 % (using potato dextrose agar). Aflatoxin-producing ability of all isolates was further confirmed using thin layer- and high-performance liquid chromatography. Sixty three atoxigenic A. flavus isolates were identified as atoxigenic in all assays. For these isolates, five loci across the aflatoxin biosynthesis cluster pathway were compared to identify genetic defects explaining atoxigenicity. Genetic deletions in at least one of five loci in the aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway were found for 97 % of isolates. Frequencies of atoxigenic strains ranged from 7.1 to 37.5 % with the lowest incidence detected in the Kerman province. Proper identification of atoxigenic isolates is considered a first step in the development of biological control strategies. Ability of identified isolates to competitively exclude aflatoxin-producing fungi has to be further investigated. © 2014, Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Review

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Mehrnejad, M.R.

The psyllids of pistachio trees in Iran

(2014) Acta Horticulturae, 1028, pp. 191-194.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84899520409&doi=10.17660%2fActaHortic.2014.1028.30&partnerID=40&md5=f8546b48ad6497261dbc3b760a880acf

DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2014.1028.30

AFFILIATIONS: Pistachio Research Institute, P.O. Box 77175.435, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Three psyllid species are associated with pistachio trees in Iran. The common pistachio psyllid, Agonoscena pistaciae, is distributed throughout the country in both pistachio producing regions and wild pistachio growing areas. In addition, two other psyllid species, the khinjuk psyllid, Agonoscena bimaculata, and the leaf-roller pistachio psyllid, Megagonoscena viridis, occur on Pistacia atlantica subspecies P. mutica, Pistacia khinjuk, and Pistacia vera. Agonoscena pistaciae is an indigenous insect in Iran and it is now the most serious pest throughout the pistachio-producing areas of the country. The presence of large populations of psyllid nymphs and adults causes severe problems in kernel development, with subsequent bud drop and defoliation. This damage affects not only the yields in the current year but also in the two subsequent years, and it therefore causes heavy economic losses. Agonoscena bimaculata is distributed in mountainous areas and lives mainly on P. khinjuk now. It is not of economic importance in cultivated pistachio plantations, although it causes severe damage on P. khinjuk at some locations in the country. It is multivoltine and mainly reproduces in concealed sites. The psyllid colony usually occurs in the very dense fruit clusters, particularly early in the growing season, and then it builds a dense colony between leaves attached to each other by moth caterpillars from mid spring to late autumn. Megagonoscena viridis is an old pest on cultivated pistachio trees in Iran, and is a locally injurious pest. It is univoltine and causes modification of growth in young and rapidly growing leaflet tissue, and forms irregular distortions of the leaflet from its edge in early spring. The infested leaflets appear as a roll. Egg diapause occurs in M. viridis, in which eggs laid in the angle between bud and twig in late May hatch the following April.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Mehrnejad, M.R.

Pest problems in pistachio producing areas of the world and their current means of control

(2014) Acta Horticulturae, 1028, pp. 163-170. Cited 6 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84899519746&partnerID=40&md5=4ae236f7c38d1885ce99a62dcfef7e1c

AFFILIATIONS: Pistachio Research Institute, P.O. Box 77175.435, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Pistachio trees are hosts to a relatively extensive arthropod fauna. Arthropod pests are the main problem for pistachio-growers and, for this reason, insects and mite infestations have received particular attention from pistachio-growers. The injurious species in the pistachio plantations of the Middle-East and Mediterranean region are the same, but are different from those found in pistachio orchards in California. In general, the hemipteran plant-sap-feeding insects, e.g. psyllids, plant bugs, mealybugs, stink bugs, scale insects and leafhoppers, are considered to be the major injurious agents worldwide. However, the twig borer moth and several beetle species also attack the fruit clusters, buds, twigs, stem, trunks and roots of trees, and these are found throughout the Middle-East and Mediterranean regions. Psyllids and hemipterous bugs, in both the nymphal and adult stages, cause direct yield loss, whereas leaf- and wood-boring groups weaken the tree and thus reduce yields indirectly. The navel-orange worm and the carob moth infest fruits either at prematuration or afterwards, and both play an important role in aflatoxin development in pistachios. Pistachio seed wasps and phytophagous mites are also present throughout the pistachio plantations of the world. The control of pistachio pests relies almost exclusively on pesticides. However, for most pistachio pests, sanitation procedures are the primary means of control. Cultural and mechanical control such as (i) clearing up leaf litter and such debris as pruned branches and twigs both inside and around the orchards, (ii) removal of unharvested nuts, (iii) destruction of any nuts left on the soil surface, and (iv) tilling and discing the orchard floor, particularly under the trees’ canopy, may help reduce overwintering populations of many pest species. Furthermore, appropriate and regular irrigation and fertilization regimes are considered efficient treatments against wood boring species. Pruning and removal of weak, damaged and dead pistachio twigs, branches and trunks are necessary to disrupt the egg laying sites for scolytid beetles. Although identification, evaluation and rearing methods of beneficial insects and mites against pistachio pests is being widely investigated, mass release of commercially produced parasitoids or predators is not being undertaken currently. At present, conservation is considered to be the best strategy to maintain and increase the efficiency of indigenous biological control agents, particularly in plantations in the Middle-East, due to the lack of IMP programmes. Further investigations are essential to develop IPM programmes, particularly to characterize the main factors responsible for changes in the population dynamics of both pests and biocontrol agents.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Sedaghati, E., Hokmabadi, H.

Safety of Food and Beverages: Oilseeds and Legumes

(2014) Encyclopedia of Food Safety, 3, pp. 331-339.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85042817030&doi=10.1016%2fB978-0-12-378612-8.00443-1&partnerID=40&md5=4666261d39c4c2c405e6d26e5bed7fc5

DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-378612-8.00443-1

AFFILIATIONS: Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Iranian Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Oilseeds and legumes can become contaminated during growth and harvesting of raw materials, storage, and transport to the factory, and processing. The final product may then become recontaminated during subsequent storage and transport to shops, and during storage and preparation by the consumer. Toxigenic microorganisms, pesticide residues, allergic reaction, genetically modified (GM) plants are the major safety concern for the oilseeds and legumes industry. Mycotoxins found primarily in grains, tree nuts, oilseeds, legumes, juices, can also be passed through animals into products such as milk. The adverse health effects of fumonisins and aflatoxin, have been seriously underestimated, particularly in many developing countries where products that are prone to mycotoxin contamination make up for a large portion of the diet. The pesticides found in or on foods are called ‘residues’. In this article, the main source of contaminants (microbiological, chemical), GM plants and allergies of oilseeds and legumes will be discussed. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Book Chapter

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Hokmabadi, H., Sedaghati, E.

Safety of Food and Beverages: Nuts

(2014) Encyclopedia of Food Safety, 3, pp. 340-348. Cited 2 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84926187762&doi=10.1016%2fB978-0-12-378612-8.00292-4&partnerID=40&md5=6e296ac1f3cd26785c3da391f892eeba

DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-378612-8.00292-4

AFFILIATIONS: Iranian Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Tree nuts are widely consumed in both raw and processed forms. Nuts can become contaminated during growth and harvesting of raw materials, storage and transport to the factory, and processing into finished products. The final product may then become (re)contaminated during subsequent storage and transport to shops, and during storage and preparation by the consumer. Pathogenic microorganisms are a major safety concern for the nut industry. It has recently been suggested that the adverse health effects of two classes of mycotoxins, fumonisins, and aflatoxin, have been seriously underestimated, particularly in many developing countries where products that are prone to mycotoxin contamination make up a large portion of the diet. In this article, the main source of contaminants (microbiological, chemical, and physical) and allergies of nuts will be discussed. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Book Chapter

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Zadsalehimasouleh, F., Mozafari, V., Tajabadipour, A., Hokmabadi, H.

PISTACHIO RESPONSES TO SALT STRESS AT VARIED LEVELS OF MAGNESIUM

(2014) Journal of Plant Nutrition, 37 (6), pp. 889-906.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84897416894&doi=10.1080%2f01904167.2013.873463&partnerID=40&md5=887dead78197d4cc2fa756c3b58603ed

DOI: 10.1080/01904167.2013.873463

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Soil Science, Vali-e-Asr University, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Horticulture Department, Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Crop production in many parts of the world is increasingly affected by soil salinization, especially in the irrigated fields of arid and semi-arid regions. The effects of four magnesium levels [0, 0.5, 1, and 22 millliMolar (mM) magnesium as magnesium sulfate (MgSO4.5H2O)], and three salinity levels [0, 45 and 90 mM sodium chloride (NaCl)] on growth and the chemical composition of pistachio seedlings (Pistacia vera L.) cv. ‘Badami-e-Zarand’ was studied in sand culture under greenhouse conditions. The experiment was set up as a completely randomized design (CRD) with four replications. After 28 weeks the growth parameters of biomass, leaf number, leaf area and stem height were measured. The results demonstrated that salinity decreased biomass, leaf area and stem height; the application of 2 mM magnesium (Mg) significantly reduced biomass, leaf number, leaf area and stem height; salinity stress increased concentrations of sodium (Na) and potassium (K) in shoot as well as Na concentration in root; however, it decreased Mg and calcium (Ca) concentrations in shoot, as well as Mg, Ca, and K concentrations in root. The application of 2 mM Mg reduced K and Ca concentrations in shoot and Na and K concentrations in root. © 2014 Taylor &amp; Francis Group, LLC.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Khodaygan, P., Moslemkhani, C., Shahbazi, R., Moradi, M., Habibi, H.

Molecular identification of 16S rII phytoplasma group in commercial pistachio cultivars in Iran

(2014) Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 47 (12), pp. 1400-1407. Cited 2 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84899900019&doi=10.1080%2f03235408.2013.843811&partnerID=40&md5=5c00a731f3b40a3e1b5c0cb115b946ed

DOI: 10.1080/03235408.2013.843811

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Plant Protection, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Seed and Plant Certification and Registration Institute, Karaj, Iran;

Department of Plant Protection, Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Evaluation of phytoplasmas infection was conducted in the pistachio-growing areas of Iran (Rafsanjan in Kerman province) in early autumn of 2011. A total of 30 pistachio trees collected from a pistachio orchard in Rafsanjan showing Psylla damage symptoms and 10 samples with different abnormal symptoms from miscellaneous orchards were tested for the presence of phytoplasma. By using nested PCR with primer pairs P1/P7 and internal primer sets R16F2N/R16R2 and fU3-rU5, amplified fragment of expected size was observed in some trees with deformation and yellowing symptoms. On the basis of nucleotide sequence analysis of 16S rDNA amplified by PCR, this phytoplasma was classified in group 16S rII. In addition, we observed false positive reaction in three trees of Ahmadaghaei cultivar by using primer sets R16F2N/R16R2 and sequence analysis of ~1250bp PCR product indicated that amplified fragment was related to Schinus terebinthifolius; a species of flowering plant in the Anacardiaceae family. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Kamiab, F., Talaie, A., Khezri, M., Javanshah, A.

Exogenous application of free polyamines enhance salt tolerance of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) seedlings

(2014) Plant Growth Regulation, 72 (3), pp. 257-268. Cited 42 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84895765190&doi=10.1007%2fs10725-013-9857-9&partnerID=40&md5=4d655082d072dcc26279fcac5ed83ee7

DOI: 10.1007/s10725-013-9857-9

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Horticulture, Rafsanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Department of Horticulture, University College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran;

Horticultural Research Institute, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran;

Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: The protective effects of free polyamines (PAs) against salinity stress were investigated for pistachio seedlings (Pistacia vera cv. Badami-Zarand) in a controlled greenhouse. Seedlings were treated with 25, 50, 100 and 150 mM of salts including NaCl, CaCl2 and MgCl2. Foliar treatments of putrescine, spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) (0.1 and 1 mM) were applied during the salinity period. Results showed that growth characteristics of pistachio seedlings decreased under salinity stress and the application of PAs efficiently reduced the adverse effects of salt stress. PAs reduced the severe effects of salt stress in pistachio seedlings neither by increasing the activities of peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase nor by increasing the proline content but by increasing the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase and decreasing the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) activity. PAs treated seedlings showed a lower Na+:K+ ratio and Cl- in leaves suggesting the role of PAs in balancing the ion exchange and better Na+:K+ discrimination under salt stress condition. These results showed the promising potential use of PAs especially Spm and Spd for reducing the negative effects of salinity stress and improving the growth of pistachio seedlings. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Owji, A., Esfandiarpour Boroujeni, I., Kamali, A., Hosseinifard, S.J., Bagheri Bodaghabadi, M.

The effects of hydrometer reading times on the spatial variability of soil textures in southeast Iran

(2014) Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 7 (4), pp. 1491-1499. Cited 1 time.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84897580406&doi=10.1007%2fs12517-012-0786-0&partnerID=40&md5=49e0149f07a13e0a8345a0a3cfae60a3

DOI: 10.1007/s12517-012-0786-0

AFFILIATIONS: College of Agriculture, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, P.O. Box 518, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Soil Science Department, College of Agriculture, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, P.O. Box 518, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Institute of Pistachio Research, Rafsanjan, Iran;

College of Agriculture, Shahrekord University, P.O. Box 115, Shahrekord, Iran

ABSTRACT: Soil texture is an important physical soil property that may contribute to variations in many soil functions as well as nutrient storage and availability, water retention, and soil erosion. Although several methods for determining the texture classes of soil particles have been proposed, differences among hydrometer reading times have presented challenges in determining the precise soil texture classes. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of hydrometer reading time on the spatial variability of soil textures in the Rafsanjan area, southeast Iran. To accomplish this, 77 soil samples were collected on a 500-m square sampling grid from depths of 0-40, 40-80, and 80-120 cm, and their particle sizes were determined through analysis for 40 s, 2 h, 6.5 h, and 8 h using the Bouyoucos hydrometer method. The results showed a strong spatial correlation in the soil particles among sampling soil layers and across the study area. Moreover, the differences among hydrometer reading times did not have a significant impact on determination of coarse soil texture classes, although they did influence determination of the finer classes. Although the 8 h reading time provided the most accurate response with respect to mechanical analysis of a soil, after 6.5 h the hydrometer could also largely (more than 80.0 %, on average) achieve this goal. Additionally, the 2 h hydrometer reading time could also be useful for the initial assessment or general overview of the soil texture in a certain region; however, it is not recommended for precision agriculture or site-specific management. © 2012 Saudi Society for Geosciences.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Hojjatnooghi, F., Mozafari, V., Tajabadipour, A., Hokmabadi, H.

EFFECTS OF SALINITY AND CALCIUM ON THE GROWTH AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PISTACHIO SEEDLINGS

(2014) Journal of Plant Nutrition, 37 (6), pp. 928-941. Cited 4 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84897409427&doi=10.1080%2f01904167.2014.888737&partnerID=40&md5=eec16574e99ae144ad23db69b7e8d0af

DOI: 10.1080/01904167.2014.888737

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Soil Science, Agricultural College of Science and Research Branch Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran;

Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Iran;

Horticulture Department, Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute, Shahid Hosseini Kerman, Iran

ABSTRACT: Poor quality of irrigation water (high salinity) has reduced the yields of pistachio over recent years, especially in Kerman. The effects of four salinity levels [0, 30, 60, and 90 mM sodium chloride (NaCl)] and three calcium (Ca) levels [0, 0.5, and 1 mM Ca as calcium nitrate (Ca(NO3)2.4H2O)] on growth and chemical composition of pistachio seedlings cv. ‘Badami’ were studied in sand culture under greenhouse conditions in completely randomized design (CRD) with four replications. After 170 days, leaf area, leaf number, shoot and root dry weights were determined. Also shoot and root sodium (Na), potassium (K), Ca, and magnesium (Mg) concentrations were measured. Results showed salinity decreased all growth parameters. Ca application increased shoot and root Ca concentrations and root K concentration, while Ca application decreased shoot K concentration and shoot and root Mg concentrations. Salinity decreased shoot Ca, root K, and root Mg concentrations, while salinity increased shoot and root total sodium uptake, and shoot and root Cl concentrations. © 2014 Taylor &amp; Francis Group, LLC.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Mohammadpour, M., Jalali, M.A., Michaud, J.P., Ziaaddini, M., Hashemirad, H.

Multiparasitism of stink bug eggs: Competitive interactions between Ooencyrtus pityocampae and Trissolcus agriope

(2014) BioControl, 59 (3), pp. 279-286. Cited 14 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84901341680&doi=10.1007%2fs10526-014-9565-z&partnerID=40&md5=56b2748b31159a038d9d37bcd989edbb

DOI: 10.1007/s10526-014-9565-z

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Plant Protection, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Department of Entomology, Agricultural Research Center-Hays, Kansas State University, Hays, KS, United States;

Department of Plant Protection, Pistachio Research Institute of Iran, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Females of Trissolcus agriope (Platygastridae) avoid host (Brachynema signatum) eggs parasitized by conspecifics or Ooencyrtus pityocampae (Encyrtidae), but females of the latter species will superparasitize and multiparasitize, although they mostly attack unparasitized eggs. Females of T. agriope were more efficient in the laboratory and parasitized more hosts in 24 and 48 h. In multiparasitized hosts, O. pityocampae was a superior larval competitor and could complete also development as a facultative hyperparasitoid. When females of both species foraged together, T. agriope parasitized significantly more than O. pityocampae, about 50 % in both cases, although O. pityocampae almost doubled its parasitism rate as the exposure period was lengthened from 24 to 48 h. When O. pityocampae followed T. agriope in sequential foraging bouts, the former species successfully parasitized more hosts than the latter. The advisability of co-releases of both species to improve biological control of first generation B. signatum in Iranian pistachio orchards is discussed. © 2014 International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC).

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Jalali, M.A., Mehrnejad, M.R., Kontodimas, D.C.

Temperature-dependent development of the five psyllophagous ladybird predators of agonoscena pistaciae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

(2014) Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 107 (2), pp. 445-452. Cited 11 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84895858769&doi=10.1603%2fAN13112&partnerID=40&md5=0d83de57ffbcd1e6600493ee7a6a183d

DOI: 10.1603/AN13112

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Crop Protection, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, College of Agriculture, P.O. Box 518, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Department of Crop Protection, Pistachio Research Institute, P.O. Box 77175.435, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Department of Entomology and Agricultural Zoology, Laboratory of Agricultural Entomology, Benaki Phytopathological Institute, 8 Stefanou Delta, 14561 Kifissia, Greece

ABSTRACT: The temperature-dependent development of five psyllophagous ladybirds, Adalia bipunctata (L.), Coccinella undecimpunctata aegyptica (Reiche), Exochomus nigripennis (Erichson), Hippodamia variegata (Goeze), and Oenopia conglobata contaminata (Menetries) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), was studied on the common pistachio psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt and Lauterer (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), in the laboratory. The lower developmental thresholds for total development (egg to adult) of the predators ranged from 10.9 (O. c. contaminata) to 14°C (C. u. aegyptica). The lowest and highest degree-day (DD) requirement values for total development of the studied cocinellids were estimated for C. u. aegyptica (166.67 DD) and E. nigripennis (344.83 DD), respectively. The optimum temperature for development of the studied ladybirds, calculated using third-order polynomial and Lactin models, was in the range of 27.5-30°C. This study showed that all the five psyllophagous ladybirds successfully complete their development in a wide range of temperatures from 17.5 to 30°C, indicating their high potential for use in biological control programs against A. pistaciae. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Gelderblom, W.C.A., Shephard, G.S., Rheeder, J.P., Sathe, S.K., Ghiasi, A., Motarjemi, Y.

Edible Nuts, Oilseeds and Legumes

(2014) Food Safety Management: A Practical Guide for the Food Industry, pp. 301-324. Cited 4 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84902430663&doi=10.1016%2fB978-0-12-381504-0.00012-3&partnerID=40&md5=9e1d7365277768a53638c45f875e12f0

DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-381504-0.00012-3

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Biochemistry, Medical Research Council, Tygerberg, South Africa;

Department of Biochemistry, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa;

College of Human Sciences, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, United States;

Iranian Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Nuts, oilseeds and legumes are important dietary constituents to combat chronic diseases of lifestyle due to the presence of important dietary macro- and micronutrients. However, many potential hazards associated with the harvesting, storage and processing occur of which mycotoxin contamination appears to be one of the major causes for economic losses of foodstuff and health-related risks resulting in many animal and human diseases. The major toxigenic fungal genera are Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium, producing a diverse group of mycotoxins with adverse toxicological effects of which the aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and the fumonisins are some of the most common and well-researched mycotoxins. The levels of these mycotoxins, among others, are well controlled in food and feed in developed countries, whereas their regulation in developing countries is poor or lacking. Mycotoxin control in food commodities involves a range of interventions to secure safe food based on a farm to fork approach, including good agricultural, storage and processing practices, which form part of the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) system. For example, pistachio nuts are associated with a high risk for pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination due to insect damage and “early splitting” of the fruit hulls, as well as during the extensive post-harvest processing of the nuts. The generic example of an HACCP plan for pistachio processing identifies five Critical Control Points (CCPs) which need careful monitoring to ensure a consumer product which adheres to international aflatoxin regulations. These CCPs include steps related to the use of flotation tanks, adequate removal of hull debris from the nut shells, proper drying and sorting prior to packaging or export. Key to this HACCP plan is good communication between pistachio producer and processor. These and other control parameters to reduce mycotoxin contamination are critically reviewed in the current chapter which will be important in food safety management regarding the control of mycotoxin exposure. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Book Chapter

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Salehi, T., Mehrnejad, M.R., Rad, S.P.

Diversity pattern of adult ladybird (coleoptera: Coccinellidae) communities on pistachio trees in southern parts of iran in different months

(2013) Zoology and Ecology, 23 (4), pp. 286-292. Cited 4 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84893784087&doi=10.1080%2f21658005.2013.838071&partnerID=40&md5=402c76fd67042687a1cdccc7d4402aa2

DOI: 10.1080/21658005.2013.838071

AFFILIATIONS: Faculty of Biological Science, Department of Zoology, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C. Tehran, Iran;

Pistachio Research Institute, P.O. Box 77175.435, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: The diversity of ladybird communities was monitored in planted and wild pistachio plantations during the growing season (April-October) of 2010 in the southern part of Iran. On planted pistachio trees, 20 ladybird species were identified, among which Hippodamia variegata (Goeze), Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus and Scymnus (Pullus) scyriacus (Marseul) were found to be the most abundant. On wild pistachio trees, where 15 species were collected, the most abundant ladybird species was C. septempunctata, followed by S. scyriacus and Adalia bipunctata (Linnaeus). Monthly variations in species diversity, richness and evenness of these beetles were compared between planted and wild pistachio plantations. June and May showed the highest values of the Shannon-Wiener Index in planted and wild pistachio growing areas, respectively. Although there was some variation recorded in species composition, no significant difference was found between species diversity on planted and wild pistachio trees in different months. Adult ladybirds first appeared on pistachio trees in the middle of April, their abundance reaching the peak in June. However, later in summer, their abundance decreased increasing again in September and October. Monthly changes in the abundance of coccinellid species might be due to prey availability and responses to habitat types. © 2013 Nature Research Centre.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Nadernejad, N., Ahmadimoghadam, A., Hossyinifard, J., Poorseyedi, S.

Effect of different rootstocks on PAL activity and phenolic compounds in flowers, leaves, hulls and kernels of three pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) cultivars

(2013) Trees – Structure and Function, 27 (6), pp. 1681-1689. Cited 20 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84888005064&doi=10.1007%2fs00468-013-0915-8&partnerID=40&md5=19f3f9e4b21ae66c14a78b8ec6c7df08

DOI: 10.1007/s00468-013-0915-8

AFFILIATIONS: Biology Department, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, P.O. Box 76169-133, 76169-14111 Kerman, Iran;

Nutrition and Irrigation Department Iran’s, Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Plant Breeding Department, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran

ABSTRACT: Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is a biochemical marker of environmental stress and plays a pivotal role in phenolic synthesis. Lower ROS levels and oxidative damage were observed in grafted plants; moreover, the rootstocks have a profound influence on the biochemical composition, especially of phenolic compounds. Regarding the importance of the effect rootstocks have on scion in pistachio trees, this study was carried out to assess and compare three pistachio cultivars (Ahmadaghaii, Ohadi and Kallehghuchi) on four rootstocks (Mutica, Ahli, Sarakhs and Atlantica). PAL activity, phenolic compounds, and flavonoid and anthocyanin contents in leaves, flowers and fruits were measured for the selection of the most suitable and compatible rootstock/scion resistant to environmental stresses. The results showed that PAL activity was different among the cultivars and organs. A positive correlation was observed between PAL activity and phenolic compounds in the leaves and flowers of Mutica-Ahmadaghaii, suggesting that it was more resistant than the others to environmental stresses. PAL activity and total phenolics in pistachio fruits suffered a decrease when the maturation processes began. The hulls of the pistachio fruits contained high levels of phenolic compounds, especially in Mutica-Ahmadaghaii, suggesting its function as a protective layer and a defense chemical against ultraviolet radiation and pathogens. Our results indicated the presence of a number of bioactive compounds in kernels with the highest amount belonging to Mutica-Ahmadaghaii. Therefore, we concluded that pistachio rootstocks mighy affect the antioxidant compounds in kernels. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Mirdehghan, S.H., Khanamani, Z., Shamshiri, M.H., Hokmabadi, H.

Preharvest foliar application of putrescine and spermine on postharvest quality of fresh pistachio

(2013) Acta Horticulturae, 1012, pp. 299-304. Cited 1 time.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84888984389&partnerID=40&md5=3d35a68a29d5ccb0472ce6e0496c0908

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Rafsanjan, Vali-e-Asr, 425, Iran;

Department of Horticulture, Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute (IPRI), PO Box 77175, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Pistachio is the major agricultural product in Iran. Fresh pistachios undergo biochemical and physiological changes after harvest and consequently it has a short shelf life. The study was designed to study the effects of foliar spraying of putrescine (Put) and spermine (Spm) before harvest and evaluating the postharvest behavior of fresh pistachio. Put (0, 1, 2 mM) and Spm (0, 1, 2 mM) were applied to pistachio tree, ‘Kalleh Ghochi’ and ‘Fandoghi’. Treatments were performed 20 and 35 days before harvest. Following Put and Spm treatments, fruits were stored at 1.5±1°C and 90-95% RH for 0, 20 and 45 days. Parameters such as color changes, firmness, weight loss and fungal infection were measured at harvest and during storage. The results revealed that fresh pistachio storability could be extended by Put and Spm treatment due to their effect on delaying the softening and decreasing weight loss, fungal infection. In addition both polyamines at different concentrations increased the firmness of fresh pistachio nuts significantly in comparison to the control.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Shakerardekani, A., Karim, R., Vaseli, N.

The effect of processing variables on the quality and acceptability of pistachio milk

(2013) Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 37 (5), pp. 541-545. Cited 7 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84885844299&doi=10.1111%2fj.1745-4549.2012.00676.x&partnerID=40&md5=d3938f979bf087fc96a3ed7a10bee00e

DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-4549.2012.00676.x

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, UPM, Serdang, 43400 Selangor, Malaysia;

Department of Food Technology, Iran Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Kerman, Iran

ABSTRACT: In an attempt to develop a new beverage from pistachio nuts, the effect of different methods of making paste, which involved grinding soaked kernels (method 1) and milling roasted kernels (method 2), as well as the blending time (20 or 30min) and pH (6.5, 7.5 or 8.5) of the slurry on the pistachio milk compositions (protein, fat, total dry matter and total soluble solid), was evaluated. The taste and flavor of the pistachio milk were improved by the addition of sugar, vanillin and salt. The overall acceptability of the products was evaluated by 25 untrained panelists using hedonic test. The best processing conditions were milling the roasted kernels and blending the pistachio paste with water at pH8.5 for 30min. The most preferred flavor of pistachio milk is made by the addition of 5.0% sugar, 0.02% vanilla and 0.0% salt. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: This study describes a process for preparing pistachio milk from small-sized and unsplit pistachio nuts that cannot be used for direct human consumption. This product can be served as a substitute for animal milk. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Shakerardekani, A., Karim, R., Ghazali, H.M., Chin, N.L.

The effect of monoglyceride addition on the rheological properties of pistachio spread

(2013) JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 90 (10), pp. 1517-1521. Cited 10 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84885430903&doi=10.1007%2fs11746-013-2299-8&partnerID=40&md5=cf4f981908d382efd321fdc217470e62

DOI: 10.1007/s11746-013-2299-8

AFFILIATIONS: Iranian Pistachio Research Institute, P.O. Box 77175-435, Rafsanjan, Kerman, Iran;

Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang Selangor, Malaysia;

Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang Selangor, Malaysia;

Department of Process and Food Engineering, Faculty of Food Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang Selangor, Malaysia

ABSTRACT: Pistachio nut (Pistacia vera L.) is one of the most delicious and nutritious nuts in the world. In this study, monoglycerides (0.0-1.5 %) as lipophilic emulsifiers were used to prevent oil separation in pistachio spread A (containing 50.0 % pistachio paste, 30.0 % icing sugar and 20.0 % red palm oil) and B (containing 58.3 % pistachio paste, 25.0 % icing sugar and 16.7 % red palm oil). Changes in rheological behavior of pistachio spreads were investigated. The highest work of shear (which indicates spreadability) was observed in Formulations A and B containing 1.5 % monoglycerides. Addition of emulsifier significantly (P &lt; 0.05) influenced the consistency index (K), thixotropic area (A), yield stress (τ 0) and coefficient correlation (R) of pistachio spreads. All the pistachio spreads that contained emulsifier exhibited a higher storage modulus (G′) than the loss modulus (G″). © 2013 AOCS.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Mehrnejad, M.R., Linnavuori, R.E., Alavi, S.H.

Hemipteran bugs associated with pistachio trees and notes on major species

(2013) Zoology and Ecology, 23 (1), pp. 29-40. Cited 10 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84877732270&doi=10.1080%2f21658005.2013.774832&partnerID=40&md5=99fa21f5676a66cf0a6f521e754ae2d2

DOI: 10.1080/21658005.2013.774832

AFFILIATIONS: Pistachio Research Institute, P.O. Box 77175.435, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Saukkokuja 10, Raisio, FIN-21220, Finland

ABSTRACT: Hemipteran bugs are considered major pistachio pests, most of which belong to Miridae and Pentatomidae families. However, little information is available on phytophagous or predatory bugs associated with pistachio trees. The diversity and relative abundance of hemipterans on pistachio trees was monitored in both cultivated pistachio plantations and wild pistachio growing areas in Kerman province, Iran, from 2009 to 2012. The samplings were carried out randomly using a white beating tray in the cultivated pistachio plantations at the altitudes of 1150-1864m and in wild pistachio growing areas at the altitudes of 1800-2500 m. The present article records 37 hemipteran species of 29 genera and 7 families. These bugs were found to be associated with pistachio trees either as host plants, or host plants of their prey, or shelter plants. Biological information and notes on the present status, i.e. trophic level, relative abundance and economic importance, of the major species, including Anthocoris minki pistaciae Wagner, 1957, Campylomma diversicorne Reuter, 1878, Campylomma verbasci (Meyer-Dür, 1843), Farsiana pistaciae Linnavuori, 1998, Pseudoloxops sangrudanus Linnavuori, 2006, and Spilostethus (=Lygaeus) pandurus (Scopoli, 1763), are presented. In addition, the stink bug Acrosternum arabicum Wagner, 1959 was for the first time observed to be injurious to pistachio nuts in wide areas. Copyright © 2013 Nature Research Centre.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Shakerardekani, A., Karim, R., Ghazali, H.M., Chin, N.L.

Development of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) spread

(2013) Journal of Food Science, 78 (3), pp. S484-S489. Cited 11 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84874571451&doi=10.1111%2f1750-3841.12045&partnerID=40&md5=6cd8e57b2e38e9953faeeda34cfcb54d

DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.12045

AFFILIATIONS: Iranian Pistachio Research Inst., Rafsanjan, Kerman, Iran;

Dept. of Food Technology, Faculty of Food Technology, Univ. Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia;

Dept. of Food Science, Faculty of Food Technology, Univ. Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia;

Dept. of Process and Food Engineering, Faculty of Food Engineering, Univ. Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

ABSTRACT: Pistachio nut (Pistacia vera L.) is one of the most delicious and nutritious nuts in the world. Pistachio spreads were developed using pistachio paste as the main component, icing sugar, soy protein isolate (SPI), and red palm oil (RPO), at different ratios. The highest mean scores of all the sensory attributes were depicted by spreads that were made without addition of SPI. It was found that the work of shear was 0 to 11.0 kg s for an acceptable spread. Sensory spreadability, overall texture, spreadability, and overall acceptability were negatively correlated (R > 0.83) with the work of shear of spreads. The findings indicated that the presence of RPO had a direct effect on the viscoelastic behavior of the pistachio spreads. The a values, which are related to the green color of the pistachio product ranged from 1.7 to 3.9 for spread without addition of RPO, and 4.0 to 5.3 in the presence of RPO. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Shakerardekani, A., Karim, R., Ghazali, H.M., Chin, N.L.

Textural, rheological and sensory properties and oxidative stability of nut spreads-a review

(2013) International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 14 (2), pp. 4223-4241. Cited 39 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84875111813&doi=10.3390%2fijms14024223&partnerID=40&md5=e549cbc5e4f4d38c17a2a5ae85107f55

DOI: 10.3390/ijms14024223

AFFILIATIONS: Iranian Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Kerman 77175-435, Iran;

Department of Food Technology, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor 43400, Malaysia;

Department of Food Science, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor 43400, Malaysia;

Department of Process and Food Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor 43400, Malaysia

ABSTRACT: Tree nuts are rich in macro and micronutrients, phytochemicals, tocopherols and phenolic compounds. The development of nut spreads would potentially increase the food uses of nuts and introduce consumers with a healthier, non-animal breakfast snack food. Nut spreads are spreadable products made from nuts that are ground into paste. Roasting and milling (particle size reduction) are two important stages for the production of nut spreads that affected the textural, rheological characteristic and overall quality of the nut spread. Textural, color, and flavor properties of nut spreads play a major role in consumer appeal, buying decisions and eventual consumption. Stability of nut spreads is influenced by its particle size. Proper combination of ingredients (nut paste, sweetener, vegetable oil and protein sources) is also required to ensure a stable nut spread product is produced. Most of the nut spreads behaved like a non-Newtonian pseudo-plastic fluid under yield stress which help the producers how to start pumping and stirring of the nut spreads. Similar to other high oil content products, nut spreads are susceptible to autoxidation. Their oxidation can be controlled by application of antioxidants, using processing techniques that minimize tocopherol and other natural antioxidant losses. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Review

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Shakerardekani, A., Karim, R.

Effect of different types of plastic packaging films on the moisture and aflatoxin contents of pistachio nuts during storage

(2013) Journal of Food Science and Technology, 50 (2), pp. 409-411. Cited 13 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84878498190&doi=10.1007%2fs13197-012-0624-0&partnerID=40&md5=e3c1499754c31802a033aa5e78494d5b

DOI: 10.1007/s13197-012-0624-0

AFFILIATIONS: Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang Selangor, Malaysia;

Iran Pistachio Research Institute, PO Box 77175-435, Rafsanjan, Kerman, Iran

ABSTRACT: Pistachio nut (Pistacia vera L.) is one of the popular tree nuts in the world. Proper selection of packaging materials is necessary to prevent absorption of moisture and aflatoxin formation which will influence the overall product quality and safety. This research is undertaken to study the effect of different type of flexible packaging films on the moisture and aflatoxin contents of whole pistachio nuts during storage at ambient temperature (22-28 C) and relative humidity of 85-100%. Five types of plastic films tested were low density polyethylene (LDPE) which serves as the control, food-grade polyvinyl chloride (PVC), nylon (LDPE/PA), polyamide/polypropylene (PA/PP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The moisture content and aflatoxin content of pistachio nuts were measured using oven drying method and HPLC, respectively. Sample were analysed at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 months during the storage period. Results showed that there was an increase in moisture content with the increase in storage time of pistachio nuts. The increase in moisture content was associated with the aflatoxin level of pistachio nuts during storage time. All the packaging materials except LDPE delayed the moisture absorption and aflatoxin formation of the product. The most suitable packaging materials for maintaining the quality and safety of pistachio nuts is PET films followed by nylon, PA/PP and PVC. The shelf-life of pistachio can be extended from 2 months (Control) to 5 months when PET is used as the packaging material. © 2012 Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India).

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Moazenpour Kermani, M., Hokmabadi, H.

Trend of soil salinization and its effect on pistachio yield of Rafsanjan orchards

(2012) Acta Horticulturae, 940, pp. 287-292.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84872197904&doi=10.17660%2fActaHortic.2012.940.41&partnerID=40&md5=783bbe994a7ab18bad5466a4b2f0b7fc

DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2012.940.41

AFFILIATIONS: Iranian Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: In Rafsanjan (Iran) area (including Rafsanjan, East and West suburbs, Koshkueieh, Anar, Noogh, and Kabootarkhan) by review of local map of desired mentioned location, and the existing result of water sample analysis of the area plus preliminary on-farm observations, some orchards which have had our preferred relative conditions were selected randomly. Along with these activities, feasible place for excavation of the soil profile was marked out. In another step, the writing of the soil profile description was done by teamwork of soil scientists for the depth of 0-40, 40-80 and 80-120 cm in soil profile. Soil samples were taken from above depths. The electrical conductivity (EC e) of soil extract, other routine analyzed factors and needed items for the above samples were measured in the lab. Some other data in relation to the orchard which were selected and samples gathered too. These items were general questions about the orchard management parameters. The obtained data together with general information about the orchards were processed in Excel media. In this software, desired charts and figures were analyzed by linear regression method. This curve display and its process were also done by the use of SPSS, SAS, and other needed ones. As a whole the results reveal that: – Salinity threshold (here defined as the average soil salinity of 40-120 cm of soil profile layer after which yield decreases) for pistachio is 8.65 for ECe and 4.2 (about 4) dS m-1 for irrigation water (EC iw). The above mention yield was related to almond-shape pistachio cultivars such as ‘Akbari’ or ‘Ahmadaghaei’. – The obtained results also showed that the reasonable orchard management, especially amount of irrigation water, is able to change the yield amount considerably in saline conditions. We should keep in mind that obtained results are general relationships and their precise amounts are greatly dependent on specific conditions of regional orchards.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Javanshah, A.

Determination of low-temperature development threshold and forecasting of harvesting time by degree-day in ‘Owhadi’ cultivar

(2012) Acta Horticulturae, 940, pp. 139-145.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84872171237&doi=10.17660%2fActaHortic.2012.940.17&partnerID=40&md5=8b17d2dc9652f2ebc59273be9b971f1c

DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2012.940.17

AFFILIATIONS: Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute, Horticultural Department, Kerman, Iran

ABSTRACT: In order to the determine the low-temperature development threshold and forecasting of harvesting time by the degree-hour on ‘Owhadi’ cultivar this research was done in Iran’s pistachio research institute. First cuttings of ‘Owhadi’ cultivar were taken in January and for overcoming chilling requirement they kept in 4°C for 900 hours. Then cuttings were divided in five groups, and each group was put in different incubators with 13, 16, 19, 22 and 25°C, respectively. Growth ratio was calculated by the time of swollen to bud opening (50%), then low-temperature development threshold was determined by regression analysis. To determine fruit ripening time, sampling was done every two days from 5 August and ripening percentage (hull removing and percent of open shell) measured and determined best harvesting time when 50% of fruits ripped. Based on the lowtemperature development threshold, effective degree-hours were calculated from March. Model of harvest time forecasting was determined by study on temperature of nine years (1992 to 1997 and 2006 to 2008) in Rafsanjan city and calculating of degreehours based on the low-temperature development threshold. Results showed the lowtemperature development threshold in pistachio is 5.2°C. Study on temperature data indicated in order to 50% fruit ripening; ‘Owhadi’ cultivar needs 4280 degree-hours. Based on calculating and analysis of data the following model resulted: Total degreehours=1.01 (degree-hour of March) + 0.91 (degree-hour of April) + 5.06 (degree-hour of May) + 1.49 (mean temperature of March) – 0.772 (mean temperature of April).

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Pourali, Z., Kheradmand, K.

Effects of temperature on biological parameters of Anthocoris minki pistaciae (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)

(2012) Zoology and Ecology, 22 (3-4), pp. 240-245. Cited 3 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85012538253&doi=10.1080%2f21658005.2012.724895&partnerID=40&md5=3a6151f0c5cbf14c556f97081b603c6d

DOI: 10.1080/21658005.2012.724895

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, College of Abouraihan, University of Tehran, P.O. Box: 33955-159, Pakdasht, Iran;

Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: The predatory bug – Anthocoris minki pistaciae Wagner – is associated with the common pistachio psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt and Lauterer, a major pest of cultivated pistachio trees in Iran. The biological parameters of A. minki pistaciae were determined under controlled conditions at five constant temperatures, including 17.5, 22.5, 25, 27.5 and 30 °C, 55 ± 5% relative humidity and the photoperiod of 16 light:8 dark hours. According to our data, the survival rate of eggs and nymphs was high at 17.5 and 22.5 °C, respectively; the length of the pre-oviposition period at 17.5 °C differed significantly from that at 27.5 °C. Furthermore, the study results revealed that female longevity as well as the oviposition period increased with the reduction of temperature. However, the fecundity of A. minki pistaciae did not differ significantly at all the tested temperatures ranging from 17.5 to 30 °C. The life table analysis of the predatory bug showed that both the intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) and finite rates of increase (λ) rose with an increase in the temperature from 17.5 to 30 °C, while the population doubling time (Dt) was affected by temperature adversely. To conclude, the results suggest that the populations of A. minki pistaciae tested in the present study are better adapted to high temperatures. Plėšri žiedblakė Anthocoris minki pistaciae Wagner minta pagrindiniu Irane auginamų pistacijų kenkėju – blakute Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt and Lauterer. Biologiniai A. minki pistaciae parametrai buvo įvertinti reguliuojamose aplinkos sąlygose, esant 17,5 °C, 22,5 °C, 25 °C, 27,5 °C ir 30 °C temperatūrai, 55 ± 5% santykiniam drėgnumui bei 16 šviesos ir 8 tamsos valandų fotoperiodui. Kiaušinėliai geriausiai išliko 17,5 °C, o nimfos – 22,5 °C temperatūroje. Laikotarpio iki kiaušinėlių dėjimo trukmė esant 17,5 °C ir 27,5 °C temperatūroms patikimai skyrėsi. Patelių gyvenimo trukmė ir kiaušinėlių dėjimo laikotarpis ilgėjo krentant temperatūrai. Tačiau A. minki pistaciae produktyvumas temperatūrai kintant nuo 17,5 iki 30 °C patikimai nesiskyrė. Žiedblakės A. minki pistaciae vidutinės tikėtinos gyvenimo trukmės analizė parodė, kad temperatūrai kylant nuo 17,5 °C iki 30 °C didėjo biotinis rūšies potencialas (rm) ir populiacijos augimo rodiklis (λ). Temperatūros poveikis populiacijos padvigubėjimo trukmei (Dt) buvo neigiamas. Apibendrinant, šio tyrimo rezultatai rodo, kad tirtos A. minki pistaciae populiacijos yra geriau prisitaikiusios prie aukštų temperatūrų. © 2012 Nature Research Centre.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Alaei, H., Mohammadi, A.H., Dehghani, A.

Molecular characterization of the rdna-its sequence and a pcr diagnostic technique for pileolaria terebinthi, the cause of pistachio rust

(2012) Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 51 (3), pp. 488-495. Cited 4 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84873043538&partnerID=40&md5=0887612935b47d55f5accfba81a9217d

AFFILIATIONS: Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Crop Protection, 22 Bahman Square, 518 Rafsanjan, Iran;

Iranian Pistachio Research Institute, Department of Crop Protection, 435/77175 Rafsanjan, Iran;

Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Lorestan, Department of Crop Protection, 348 Lorestan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Eleven samples of the most important pistachio rust (caused by Pileolaria terebinthi (DC.) Cast.,), which causes disease on Beneh (Pistacia atlantica Desf. subsp. mutica (Fisch. & Mey.) Rech. F) and Kasoor (Pistacia khinjuk Stocks.), were collected from herbarium specimens and pistachio fields at the Pistachio Research Institute in Rafsanjan, Iran. The complete sequences of ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers ITS1 and ITS2 (rDNA ITS) from the samples were determined and analysed. In general, very little rDNA ITS sequence variation was observed between rDNA ITS sequences of P. terebinthi samples. The length of the PCR fragments was 621 bp (for ITS1F-ITS4) and 1177 bp (for ITS1F-rust1), and consisted of 67 bp at the 3′ end of 18S rDNA, 93 bp of ITS1 region, 154 bp of 5.8S rDNA, 246 bp of the ITS2 region, 57 bp (for ITS1F-ITS4) and 613 bp (for ITS1F-rust1) at the 5′ end of the 28S rDNA. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) of the rDNA-ITS region were used to identify Pileolaria terebinthi. Three strong bands of 105, 134 and 381 bp and five bands of 105, 134, 200, 301 and 437 bp are observed for the fragment of “ITS1F-ITS4” and “ITS1F-rust1”, respectively. A PCR-RFLP diagnostic technique provided effective identification of the species by a unique pattern with the specific restriction enzyme XapI (ApoI). © Firenze University Press.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Moradi, M., Dargahi, R., Sherafati, A., Fani, S.R., Sedaghati, E., Mohammadi-Moghaddam, M., Mirabolfathy, M.

Screening of atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus isolates in pistachio producing areas of Iran

(2012) Acta Horticulturae, 963, pp. 91-93.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84872012863&doi=10.17660%2fActaHortic.2012.963.14&partnerID=40&md5=9e549c3f81e0beee2c5f52302e24e7b0

DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2012.963.14

AFFILIATIONS: Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Faizabad Pistachio Research Station, Iran;

Agriculture and Natural Resources Research of Yazd, Iran;

Plant Pathology Dep., Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Iran;

Damghan Pistachio Research Station, Iran;

Plant Disease Dep., Plant Protection Research Institute, Tehran, Iran

ABSTRACT: Aflatoxins are highly toxic compounds produced by several Aspergillus species in various substrates. Atoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus have been successfully applied to reduce aflatoxin contamination in different crops. To determine distribution of atoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus sampling was done from soil and nut samples in different agro-ecological zones. A serial dilution method and AFPA medium was used to isolate A. flavus strains. The isolates were identified according to species-specific primers. The ability of the isolates to produce aflatoxins was assayed using YES medium amended with MBC (methyl-β-cyclodextrin) as a general assessment and TLC after culturing on rice for 10 days. The results showed that out of 350 isolates, 17 were not able to produce aflatoxins using different methods. The comparison of two methods showed that the YES medium will overestimate the frequency of atoxigentic strians of A. flavus isolates. Specific detection the ability of strains to produce aflatoxins requires molecular assays.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Alipour, H., Ghafari Movafagh, F.

The best poultry manure application on level of Aspergillus flavus in pistachio fruit

(2012) Acta Horticulturae, 963, pp. 23-32.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84872012061&doi=10.17660%2fActaHortic.2012.963.2&partnerID=40&md5=d46c9355e14f2e856877bd71d8c7a3c9

DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2012.963.2

AFFILIATIONS: Iranian Pistachio Research Institute, Agricultural Research and Education Organization, PO Box 77175/435, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Aflatoxins are highly toxic and carcinogenic secondary fungal metabolites and have been detected in various food commodities including pistachio nuts. It seems that application of inappropriate managing methods in orchards, such as incorrect fertilizer application may cause aggravation of yield to Aspergillus flavus contamination. With the aim to determine the best poultry manure application in orchard, this research was designed in randomized complete block with three replicates. The treatments were application of poultry manure to fertilizer channel, to soil surface and control. The results indicated application of poultry manure to fertilizer channel caused reduction in percentage of blank fruits, increase of split nuts and increase in nut size. In specimens obtained from applications of poultry manure to fertilizer channel treatment, no aflatoxin was detected, but in some specimens of control treatment and whole specimens applications of poultry manure to soil surface treatment, aflatoxins B1 and B2 were observed.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Tajabadipour, A., Sheibani Tezerji, Z.

Aflatoxin contamination of commercial pistachio cultivars in Iran

(2012) Acta Horticulturae, 963, pp. 129-132. Cited 1 time.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84872044495&doi=10.17660%2fActaHortic.2012.963.22&partnerID=40&md5=8dbdb42a5fadc04533c55d9a0e17b0ca

DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2012.963.22

AFFILIATIONS: Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Islamic Azad University, Rafsanjan Branch, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Aflatoxin is one of the secondary metabolites produced by fungi i.e., Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus that have great dangers for human health. Aflatoxin contamination of pistachio varies based on cultivar types and appearance of the pistachio shell. Early splitting and hull tattering are two major predisposing factors that facilitate contamination of pistachios with aflatoxigenic fungi in the orchard. The shells of early split and hull tattering pistachios typically have some discoloration. The amount of shell discoloration in three commercial pistachio cultivars, ‘Ohadi’, ‘Ahmadaghaii’ and ‘Kalehghochi’, and their relationship with aflatoxin contamination were evaluated. Nuts were separated into various categories according to appearance of the shell. The content of aflatoxin was measured by HPLC method. Results showed that, aflatoxin contamination was only observed in pistachios with shell discoloration. ‘Ahmadaghaii’ pistachio had the highest content of aflatoxin that significantly differed with other cultivars. Aflatoxin content in stained shells of ‘Kalehghochi’ pistachio cultivar was in respective rank. The lowest aflatoxin content was observed in ‘Ohadi’ pistachio with shell discoloration. No aflatoxin was detected in all of the samples from ‘Ohadi’, ‘Ahmadaghaie’ and ‘Kalehghochi’ without shell discoloration. Based on these results, removal of shell stained pistachios by instructions to hand sorters can eliminate aflatoxin contamination from pistachio crop.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Tajabadipour, A., Sheibani Tezerji, Z.

Distribution of aflatoxin contamination in small and normal size pistachios in orchard

(2012) Acta Horticulturae, 963, pp. 265-268.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84872015940&doi=10.17660%2fActaHortic.2012.963.43&partnerID=40&md5=16678c042a2232634c05215034b337e1

DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2012.963.43

AFFILIATIONS: Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Islamic Azad University, Rafsanjan Branch, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Separation of aflatoxin-contaminated pistachio in orchards is one of the most important functions of processing. Removal of pistachio nuts with high aflatoxin contamination by sorting during processing caused a decrease in contamination of processed pistachios compared to non-processed pistachios. In this research, the efficiency of small separator machines in order to separate contaminated pistachios in orchard was evaluated. To predict aflatoxin contamination, ‘Owhadi’ pistachio was harvested in three replications in suitable time of harvest. After dehulling, washing and pre-drying, small pistachio nuts were separated by small separator machines. Aflatoxin content in small and normal sized pistachios was measured by HPLC method. Results showed that there was positive correlation between the nut size and aflatoxin contamination. Around 77.1% of small pistachios were contaminated with aflatoxin, whereas 28.8% of aflatoxin contamination existed in normal size pistachios. It is due to the fact that almost all early split pistachios are smaller than other pistachios.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Amani, M., Hadavi, E., Hokmabadi, H., Tajabadipour, A.

A study on the relationship between hull type and nut weight among three cultivars of pistachio nut

(2012) Acta Horticulturae, 963, pp. 203-206.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84872048978&doi=10.17660%2fActaHortic.2012.963.32&partnerID=40&md5=376d3574d4aa923df7fecb7cbc627c39

DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2012.963.32

AFFILIATIONS: Horticulture Department, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Azadi St., Eram Blvd., Mehrshahr, Karaj, Postcode: 31876/44511, Iran;

Iranian Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Contamination of pistachio nuts by A. flavus and aflatoxin buildup is dependent on the presence of defects in green hulls. Early split pistachios are the most dangerous hull defect which harbors nearly all aflatoxin in pistachios at harvest. In this study, the weight of individual kernels from all green hull types was investigated within three pistachio cultivars. The results indicate that early split pistachios have significantly lower weight in all examined cultivar. This feature of early splits could be used in processing plants for removing them from the process flow of pistachios.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Ghaffari, F., Masoomi, M., Mohammadi, H., Moradi, M.

Effect of antagonistic yeasts isolated from pistachio orchards against Aspergillus flavus

(2012) Acta Horticulturae, 963, pp. 109-112.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84872045645&doi=10.17660%2fActaHortic.2012.963.19&partnerID=40&md5=a6990a16ec948bf4245ce66972974fcd

DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2012.963.19

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Plant Pathology, Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran;

Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: The adverse effects of food contamination by fungal species and their toxins on humans and animals led to set up several regulations and legislations throughout the world. Several methods may apply to reduce and manage the contamination of food and feed to aflatoxins. In recent years, application of biological agents as stable and environmentally friendly has been emphasized. The aim of this study was to assess the competitive ability of yeast on Aspergillus flavus growth. Sampling was done from pistachio orchards in different pistachio producing areas. A serial dilution method and YMA medium were used to isolate the yeast. Single colony yeast was used in the experiments. Competitive ability of the yeasts to inhibit growth and biomass production of A. flavus were assessed using dual culture method and non-volatile compounds. The results showed that the most yeast strains were able to inhibit the fungal growth and biomass of A. flavus although to different degrees. Among these strains, 13 strains showed the highest effects using the estimated parameters such as growth, sporulation and biomass production. The inhibitory effects of saprophytic yeast have shown promise as biocontrol agents against mycotoxigenic fungi.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Amani, M., Hadavi, E., Tajabadipour, A., Hokmabadi, H.

Distribution of brown kernel as an index for aflatoxin presence among three cultivars of pistachio

(2012) Acta Horticulturae, 963, pp. 143-146.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84872018355&doi=10.17660%2fActaHortic.2012.963.24&partnerID=40&md5=1e595328090d346452b68aec42ffbf51

DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2012.963.24

AFFILIATIONS: Horticulture Dept., Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Azadi St., Eram Blvd., Mehrshahr, Karaj 31876/44511, Iran;

Iranian Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: The relationship between the appearances of brown color in the intercotyledonary plane of pistachio nuts is confirmed earlier as a good indicator of high-aflatoxin contaminations. This is used in the present study to investigate the distribution of highly contaminated nuts among three pistachio cultivars and different hull types (i.e., intact green hull, growth split and early split nuts). All individual pistachios were classified based on BGYF presence on shell before the examination of the intercotyledonary area for brown color. The results indicate that the early split pistachios had highest BGYF incidence among all cultivars. There was a significant difference between cultivars, as well. The incidence of brown kernel was significantly different among cultivars and hull types. It is concluded that the BGYF sorting could be used in all studied cultivars to remove possible contaminated nuts. A significant difference between cultivars in share of brown kernels indicates that there is an inherent genetic potential in pistachio for control of aflatoxigenic fungi.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Fani, S.R., Zamanizadeh, H., Moradi, M.

Comparison between cultural methods and TLC for detection of atoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus isolated from Iranian pistachio

(2012) Acta Horticulturae, 963, pp. 33-35.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84872010680&doi=10.17660%2fActaHortic.2012.963.3&partnerID=40&md5=dbdfe87e9946ec71d0682512ab1f97ca

DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2012.963.3

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Plant Pathology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran;

Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Aflatoxins (AF) are a group of carcinogenic mycotoxins produced by the same biochemical pathway in several Aspergillus spp. Different methods have been suggested to detect toxigenic and non-toxigenic strains such as cultural, analytical and molecular assays. The aim of this study was to compare cultural methods such as ultraviolet (UV) detection of AF diffused into coconut agar and colony color changing to pink when exposed to ammonia vapor to detect atoxigenic strians of A. flavus as well as with TLC. The isolates were collected from pistachio orchards in different agro-ecological zones of Iran. Two toxigenic and atoxigenic strains of A. flavus as positive and negative controls were used, respectively. The culture media were: potato dextrose agar (PDA), coconut agar medium (CAM) and yeast extract-sucrose (YES). The strains were inoculated at the center of solidified agar medium in 9-cm glass petri dishes and incubated at 25°C for 2 days. The color change of colony reverse was observed to detect toxigenic and non-toxigenic strains after exposing fungal colony for short time to a drop (0.2 ml) of 25% ammonia solution into the lid of the petri dish. The fungal colony was also exposed to the ultraviolet (UV) at 365 nm. The ability of the strains to produce aflatoxins was also assayed using TLC after culturing on rice powder for 10 days. The results showed that the colony reverse of AF-producing strains turned to pink and no change was observed with non-toxigenic strains. It should be mentioned the color change is restricted to the reverse of colony. The intensity of observed color was the same in CAM and YES media which was higher than PDA. The TLC and ammonia assays gave the same results to detect non-toxigenic strains. Using ammonia for the first screening atoxigenic strains of A. flavus is simple, reliable, fast and cost effective compared to the other cultural methods.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Sherafati, A., Hokmabadi, H., Abbaspour, H.

Early splitting and irregular cracking hull on pistachio cultivars (Pistacia vera L.) in North-East of Iran

(2012) Acta Horticulturae, 963, pp. 247-249. Cited 1 time.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84872009895&doi=10.17660%2fActaHortic.2012.963.40&partnerID=40&md5=a6b477475fe2be35628fd1eebac7d595

DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2012.963.40

AFFILIATIONS: Khorasan Razavi Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center, Mashhad, Iran;

Dept. of Horticulture, Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Islamic Azad University, Damghan Branch, Damghan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Khorasan province (North-East of Iran) with more than 50000 hectares pistachio orchards is one of the greatest producer areas of pistachio in Iran. The main challenge for the export of Iranian pistachios is aflatoxin contamination. According to studies, early splitting and irregular cracking hull in the pistachio orchards are the most important factors making the pistachio susceptible to aflatoxin contamination. This study was done on 12 pistachio cultivars named: ‘Badami sefid’, ‘Barg seyah’, ‘Pesteh gharmez’, ‘Pesteh garmeh’, ‘Daneshmandi’, ‘Abasali’, ‘Khanjari’, ‘Shahpasand’, ‘Owhadi’, ‘Kale ghochi’, ‘Akbari’, and ‘Momtaz’, for 4 years (2007-2010), based on randomized complete block design with three replication in pistachio research station in Khorasan Razavi province. ‘Shahpasand’ cultivar with 14.8% had the most early splitting and there was significant difference (p<0.01) with other cultivars. ‘Owhadi’ and ‘Akbari’ cultivars had 2.7 and 1.7% early splitting respectively. The lowest percentage of early splitting was observed 0, 0.1 and 0.2% in three cultivars; ‘Pesteh garmeh’, ‘Badami sefid’ and ‘Abasali’, respectively. The highest percentage of irregular cracking hulls was obtained in ‘Khanjari’.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Moradi, M., Zamanizadeh, H., Fani, S.R., Sedaghati, E.

Specific identification of atoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus isolated from pistachio orchards of Iran and detection of aflD, aflR, aflJ, aflG genes and C3 region

(2012) Acta Horticulturae, 963, pp. 95-97.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84872024786&doi=10.17660%2fActaHortic.2012.963.15&partnerID=40&md5=3a5055cc724f5324f568756e71b0a6e1

DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2012.963.15

AFFILIATIONS: Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Department of Plant Pathology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran;

Agriculture and Natural Resources Research of Yazd, Iran;

Department of Plant Pathology, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Aspergillus flavus have genetically diverse populations in the field. Different isolates produce either, neither or both aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). The aim of this study was to investigate defects in the aflatoxin gene cluster in 17 non-aflatoxigenic A. flavus isolates collected from pistachio producing areas. Genomic DNA was extracted using CTAB method. The isolates were identified based on species-specific primers. PCR assays using aflatoxin-gene-specific primers which have already been designed were used to group the functional or non-functional genes involved in aflatoxin production. The PCR assays could show deletions in aflatoxin gene cluster for four genes of the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway and one flanking region, aflD (nor1), aflR, aflJ(estA), aflG(avnA) and C3, respectively which was not rare in A. flavus isolates.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Mehrnejad, M.R.

Biological parameters of Elasmus nudus (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), a parasitoid of the pistachio fruit hull borer moth, Arimania komaroffi (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae)

(2012) Biocontrol Science and Technology, 22 (6), pp. 659-670. Cited 4 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84867869643&doi=10.1080%2f09583157.2012.677415&partnerID=40&md5=4e9048ab5a06c24eed428cc6b057f098

DOI: 10.1080/09583157.2012.677415

AFFILIATIONS: Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Elasmus nudus (Nees) is known as a synovigenic, gregarious ectoparasitoid of the pistachio fruit hull borer moth, Arimania komaroffi Ragonot in pistachio plantations in southern Iran. The biological parameters of this parasitoid were studied using the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller as a host and the resulting data were compared with that of its native host, A. komaroffi. The parasitoid developed successfully from egg to adult over a temperature range of 17-35°C. The developmental times of the parasitoid on A. komaroffi and E. kuehniella were not significantly different. The threshold value at which the development rate of E. nudus was zero was estimated to be 9.2°C and the estimated number of degree days (°D) for development from egg to adult was 238 above this threshold. The reproductive potential of E. nudus was similar on both hosts at 30°C. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m) for E. nudus did not vary much between 25°C and 32.5°C. In addition, the clutch size of the parasitoid on the two hosts was not statistically different. The present study provides some basic information on the biological characteristics of E. nudus. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Salehi, M.H., Hosseinifard, J.

Soil and Groundwater Relationships with Pistachio Yield in the Rafsanjan Area, Iran

(2012) Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 43 (4), pp. 660-671. Cited 8 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84857948978&doi=10.1080%2f00103624.2012.644006&partnerID=40&md5=eb381852982b609e2cf7076b7f46f52c

DOI: 10.1080/00103624.2012.644006

AFFILIATIONS: Soil Science Department, College of Agriculture, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran;

Nutrition and Irrigation Department, Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to examine the spatial variability of groundwater quality factors and to determine soil physicochemical properties in order to distinguish their relationships with pistachio yield in the Rafsanjan area, Iran. One hundred fifty-seven water samples from the wells of the studied area were evaluated for electrical conductivity (EC), sodium (Na +), calcium (Ca 2+), magnesium (Mg 2+), sulfate (SO 4 2-), bicarbonate (HCO 3 -), chloride (Cl -), total hardness, and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR). Groundwater levels of the wells were also recorded. The EC and SAR values of groundwater for some of the wells separately compared with pistachio yield in the orchards irrigated with these wells. Six pistachio gardens with the same management but in different parts were selected, and each garden was divided in two (desired and undesired) parts. In each part of these orchards, soil samples were randomly taken in three replicates from depths of 0-40 and 40-80 cm to determine soil properties. One soil profile was also excavated for soil classification in each part of these gardens. Groundwater in most of the area had EC &gt; 8 dS m -1 and SAR ≥ 13 (meq L -1) 0.5. The lowest qualities of groundwater were found in the eastern, southern, and the northern parts of the area, where water’s negative effects on pistachio yield have been reported. Statistical results for selected gardens showed that pistachio yield was affected considerably by salinity and clay content of the soils. Modern irrigation techniques and mixing high-quality water with poor-quality water in the area is necessary to prevent the reduction of the water table in the area. Preparing continuous soil salinity and texture maps are recommended for proper pistachio management in the area. © 2012 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Shakerardekani, A., Karim, R., Mirdamadiha, F.

The effect of sorting on aflatoxin reduction of pistachio nuts

(2012) Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment, 10 (1), pp. 459-461. Cited 8 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84856831069&partnerID=40&md5=76574120a651157248f22596e4d1289c

AFFILIATIONS: Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia;

Iran Pistachio Research Institute, P.O.Box 77175-435, Rafsanjan, Kerman, Iran

ABSTRACT: Quality of dried sorted pistachio nuts could have an important role in the aflatoxin B1 content of final pistachio lot. In order to determine this effect in different pistachio cultivars, samples of Fandoghi, Ahmad Aghaei and Kale-Ghoochi lots were divided to 7 categories based on the physical appearance of dried pistachios which were yellowish-brown stain, dark-greyish stain, large, medium, tiny, damaged and non-split. The aflatoxin content was measured by the TLC-Scanner method and results showed that the average aflatoxin content of the yellowish-brown stained nuts of the Fandoghi, Ahmad Aghaei, and Kale-Ghoochi cultivars were 136.2, 632.4 and 120.3 ng g-1, respectively, while in the dark-greyish stained nuts contained 28.7, 292.8, 7.3 ng g-1, respectively. The amount of aflatoxin in the Fandoghi, Ahmad Aghaei and Kale-Ghoochi lots can be significantly (P≤0.05) reduced to 94.6%, 97.2% and 98.8%, respectively, if all the stained nuts were removed from the lot during sorting. The highest aflatoxin B1 content was detected in the stained nuts of all the cultivars studied. This study showed that segregation or removal of all the stained nuts from the unstained portion during the sorting process could contribute to the reduction of aflatoxin content in the final dried pistachio lot.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Moazenpour Kermani, M., Haidarinezhad, A., Hokmabadi, H.

Determination of pistachio production function in pistachio growing area of Kerman (Iran)

(2011) Acta Horticulturae, 912, pp. 807-812.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84855679014&doi=10.17660%2fActaHortic.2011.912.122&partnerID=40&md5=fb71eaf58745617ef5be0417ebb87a13

DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2011.912.122

AFFILIATIONS: Plant Nutrition Dept., Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Horticulture Dept., Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Pistachio is one of the important non-oil exporting products, however, because of slight precipitation, drought years, and immethodical water resource taking, water resources have reduced. In some areas, besides drought stress, salinity of irrigation water increased more than the tolerance of pistachio rootstocks. Salinity of irrigation water and deficiency of water has caused pistachio tree life to lessen in the last few years. In this research, by estimation of pistachio production function, roles of management tools, resource deficiency and other random factors that have an affect on pistachio production function was evaluated. In this research 100 questionnaires from the Rafsanjan area were provided. For preparing this questionnaire, Rafsanjan pistachio orchards were divided into five pistachio planting areas including Anar, Koshkueieh, western and eastern county of Rafsanjan, Kabotharkhan and Noogh area. In each area based on the amount of cultivated area, the number of questionnaires was recognized. In each selected area one water sample was taken and a soil profile was excavated and evaluated by soil science experts and soil samples were taken simultaneously. Water, soil and leaf samples were analyzed in the laboratory. All results were analyzed statistically by SPSS and SAS software. Data from 65 measured parameters, revealed that 14 of them had priority and explain more than 82 percent of variance. Final investigation introduced three equations as best equation and final equation. First equation: Y2= 1203.83+110.7X1-27.8X2-22.7X6 +54.3X8 X1 = Depth of Irrigation Water, X2 = Irrigation Interval, X6 = SAR (40-80) cm, X8 = TNV (0-40) cm, R2= 0.44 Second equation: Y2=-1108.5+104.3X1-46.8X 2+0.18X3+556.7X4-99.1X5+53.63X 6+216.4X7-38.6X8-109.9X9 +5.15X 10+59.9X12-68.5X13+98.3X14 Third equation: Y =-912.474 + 0.2 X3 + 52.074X6 In these equations: X3 = Total water, X4 = EC Ave, X 5=P2, X6 = TNV, X7 = SAR Ave, X9= Na Ave, X10 = K Ave, X12= Clay Ave, X13 = Silt Ave, X 14 = B water.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Hashemi Rad, H.

Study on egg parasitoids (T. agriope & Psix sp.) using eggs of four bug species in laboratory conditions

(2011) Acta Horticulturae, 912, pp. 723-730. Cited 1 time.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84855680844&doi=10.17660%2fActaHortic.2011.912.108&partnerID=40&md5=aeb51e9e30ed3a43ab64b7cdc45c74f4

DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2011.912.108

AFFILIATIONS: Iranian Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: The pistachio green stink bugs are the most important pests in the pistachio growing areas. The egg parasitoids are considerable biocontrol agents. Five species of egg parasitoid of the Scelionid family were collected from pistachio pentatomid bug eggs. Trissolcus agriope and Psix sp. are the dominant species in the pistachio orchards in Kerman province. In order to detect the percentage of parasitism by T. agriope and Psix sp. on the eggs of Brachynema signatum, Acrosternum heegeri, Croantha ornatula and Graphosoma lineatum, parasitic eggs were collected from nature. Then, for detection of daily parasitism, 100 eggs of different host bugs for 24 hours, were offered to one of each egg parasitoid species. In order to detect the host preference, 50 eggs of each wasp species for 24 hours, were offered to one of the each parasitoid. For detection of the male copulation capability, first male emergences of each egg parasitoids wasp were exposed to 30 female and then this female released on the one newly egg mass. In order to detect the most suitable age of bug eggs for parasitism, 50 eggs with different ages were offered to one of each parasitoid species. For detection of sex ratio, individual and 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 egg mass of each bugs were offered to one pair of each parasitoid species. The experiments were carried out under controlled conditions (28 ± 1°C, 65 ± 5% and 16 h L: 8 h D). The results show that, highest egg parasitism by the Psix sp. and T. agriope belonging to C. ornatula and B. signatum egg mass with 216.51 and 209.11 egg with 18 day longevity, respectively. The results of host preference experiments indicate that, percentage parasitism each of egg parasitoids on the B. signatum, A. heegeri and C. ornatula no significant differences, but on the C. ornatula have significant differences. Highest percentage of parasitism in the all of bugs occurred in 24 h old eggs and after 36 hours the percentage of parasitism decreases extremely. Highest copulation of T. agriope and Psix sp. obtained on the C. ornatula eggs with 25.5 and 27.25 female respectively. Sex ratio increases with number of eggs in egg mass. Data obtained show that T. agriope population on the B. signatum eggs with higher growth and reproduction rates and lower growth time were a more efficient host than the other bugs.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Hashemi Rad, H., Radjabi, Gh.

Determination of favorite host for three species of pistachio pentatomid bugs under laboratory conditions

(2011) Acta Horticulturae, 912, pp. 765-770.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84855953442&partnerID=40&md5=28a783323027d8024be33ef5fea13ef9

AFFILIATIONS: Iran Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Plant Protection Research Institute, Tehran, Iran

ABSTRACT: The pistachio green stink bugs Brachynema signatum, Acrosternum heegeri and Chroanta ornatula are the most important pentatomid bugs in the pistachio growing areas. In order to multiply host bugs and use their eggs to rear the eggs of parasitoid wasps (T. agriope & Psix sp.), it is necessary to have suitable laboratory hosts. At first, adults of green stink bugs are collected from nature. After obtaining the eggs, nymphs were reared on the Zygophyllum fabago, Peganum harmala, Helianthus annuus and Cynanchum aqutun fruits under laboratory conditions (28±1°C, 65±5% RH and 16h L: 8h D). Then, developmental nymph period, rate of fatality of nymphs and adults, egg laying period and sum of eggs, were determined. The results showed that, the lowest nymph period and fatality percent of nymphs in A. heegeri, B. signatum and C. ornatulai are observed on C. aqutun fruits with 32.14%, 44.13% and 48.8% and 22.8, 25.4 and 27.2 day, respectively. The highest weight and size difference between the wild and first generation reared female belong to C. ornatula on P. harmala fruits with 0.018 g and 1.2 mm. The least weight and size difference related to B. signatum on C. aqutun fruits with 0.008 g and 0.5 mm. The lowest fatality of nymphs belong to A. heegeri on P. harmala and S. kali fruits with 6.65% and highest belonging to C. ornatula on the Z. fabago fruits with 9.98%. The highest oviposition period and egg laying belong to B. signatum on the C. aqutun fruits with 325 eggs and 32 days. Totally, the results indicated that B. signatum is the most suitable as a laboratory host and C. aqutun fruits are the suitable host plant for mass production of nymph stages and adults of the bugs.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Tajabadipour, A., Zadeh Parizi, R., Vatanpour Azghandi, A.

Comparison of growth and morphologic characteristics of in vitro micropropagated and in vivo seed-raised pistachio plants under field condition

(2011) Acta Horticulturae, 912, pp. 575-580.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84855710648&doi=10.17660%2fActaHortic.2011.912.86&partnerID=40&md5=57fc04397ac226c23562b0c11a4f03f9

DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2011.912.86

AFFILIATIONS: Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute, P.O. Box: 77175-435, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran, Karaj, Iran

ABSTRACT: Pistachio is a very important horticultural crop in Iran because of its nutritious value as well as economic revenue for the country. Bearing in mind the problems such as decreasing the quality and quantity of irrigation water and subsequently increasing salinity in pistachio orchards in many pistachio plantation areas, it is necessary to improve our rootstocks and commercial cultivars to tolerate these conditions and to be able to use the brackish water and saline soils. To achieve this, tissue culture and in particular micropropagation can help us in cloning and mass propagation of desirable rootstocks and cultivars more efficiently and shortening the time required. However, before large scale application a field evaluation of growth and development of micropropagated pistachio plants would be very useful. This project was conducted to study growth and morphological characteristics of micropropagated-plants compared with conventionally seed-raised pistachio seedlings under field conditions. Proliferation was done in DKW medium containing BAP 2mg/L and B5 vitamin solution. Rooting was done in modified MS medium with half of macro and micro nutrient concentration with IBA 2.5 mg/L and NAA 0.1 mg/L. The pistachio plants of both types were produced and transplanted into the field under similar conditions. After initial establishment, monitoring and recording of vegetative growth parameters (height and diameter) were carried out regularly based on complete randomized design with 5 replications. The results showed that micropropagated pistachio plants had statistically significant greater heights compared with seed-raised plants in Rafsanjan condition (Pistachio Station No.2, Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute) but the differences for the diameter were not statistically significant. No particular morphological differences or distinguished variations were observed between seedling and tissue culture plants.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Parhami, F., Hokmabadi, H.

Investigation on inflorescence bud dimension on some qualitative and quantitative traits in pistachio

(2011) Acta Horticulturae, 912, pp. 91-94.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84855657609&doi=10.17660%2fActaHortic.2011.912.11&partnerID=40&md5=ccf137421e7c9e35e8ab850421384daa

DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2011.912.11

AFFILIATIONS: Islamic Azad University, Jahrom Branch, Jahrom, Iran;

Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Pistachio is an economical horticultural crop in Iran. To enhance the pistachio nut quality, knowing the effective physiological mechanism is so important, therefore in order to investigate inflorescence bud type on fruit set and some quantitative and qualitative factors in two commercial pistachio cultivars (Ouhadi and Ahmadaghaiee) were measured in 2008 at Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute (IPRI) orchard as a Split plot design with three levels of bud size and tree replications. In selected trees some shoots were selected and marked for their flower buds. The bud type and dimension were measured and divided into large/medium/small bud size. Primary fruit set was measured as number of fruits per cluster. Second measuring of fruit set was done after June. Each cluster of fruits was harvested separately and transferred to the lab for measuring some qualitative and quantitative factors. According to the analysis of variance, there was a significant difference (P<1%) between effect of different treatments on primary fruit set and fruit set after June. Large and medium buds had the most amount of fruits. There was a significant difference (P<1%) between the effect of bud type on total number of fresh and dry pistachios. Small buds had least total number of fresh and dry pistachios. There was a significant difference (P<1%) between total pistachio dry and fresh weight. Also, there was a significant difference between the effect of bud type on number of fresh and dry splitting pistachio, and large and medium size bud had most splitting percent when compared to small. In conclusion we found as bud dimension increases, the fruit quality and fruit set will increase.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Sherafati, A., Hokmabadi, H., Taheri, M.

Effects of some rootstocks on mineral nutrient uptake in two pistachio cultivars (Pistacia vera L.)

(2011) Acta Horticulturae, 912, pp. 197-202. Cited 1 time.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84855669757&partnerID=40&md5=f94951f44ac32ee1c87563b3f646e632

AFFILIATIONS: Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Khorasan Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center, Mashhad, Iran

ABSTRACT: Rootstock selection plays one of the most important roles in orchard management. In Kerman province and in other pistachio growing areas of Iran, pistachio cultivars are grown on pistachio seedling rootstocks of different cultivars such as ‘Badami Zarand’ and ‘Ghazvini’. This experiment was carried out in pistachio research station (Fiez-abad area) in Khorasan province (Northeast Iran) in two years (2006-2007) with three replications and on five-year-old pistachio trees. Six cultivars (P. vera L.) were used as rootstock including: Badami-sefid, Sarakhsi, Kalle-ghouchi, Daneshmandi, Barg-Seyah and Akbari and two cultivars of Akbari and Barg-seyah were used as scion. Leaf analysis showed that there were significant differences (p<0.01) in the amount of potassium, phosphorus and iron content among treatments. Interaction between Akbari scion budded on Badami Rootstock was the most effective on the amount potassium and zinc acquisition (1.56% and 11.05 ppm respectively). The least amount of potassium and zinc was obtained from the interaction between Akbari scion budded on Daneshmandi rootstock (0.80% and 7.33 ppm respectively). Barg-seyah scion budded on Kalle-ghouchi rootstock resulted in the most amount of iron (241 ppm) and copper (12.15 ppm).

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Sajjadinia, A., Bazargan, H., Hokmabadi, H., Kefayati, M.E., Rajaee, S.

The investigation of the effects of 17 fertilizers treatments in the form of foliar application on qualitative characteristics of pistachio nut cultivar ‘Ouhadi’

(2011) Acta Horticulturae, 912, pp. 193-196.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84855646819&doi=10.17660%2fActaHortic.2011.912.27&partnerID=40&md5=bf093023b406ed891f0abb33bbfceab0

DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2011.912.27

AFFILIATIONS: Dept. of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Vali-e-Asr University, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Pistachio Research Institute of Iran, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Technical Faculty, Tehran University, Iran;

Dept. of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Birjand University, Iran

ABSTRACT: Regarding the presence of calcareous soils with high pH and EC in pistachio production areas in Iran, mineral nutrient absorption by plants becomes difficult and consequently nutrient deficiency is common. In order to increase the efficiency of chemical fertilizers in arid areas, and increase the quantity, quality and biological value of yield, foliar application of chemical fertilizers is the priority. Thus, in the present experiment, complete fertilizer, potassium, calcium, iron and copper in different concentrations and combinations were used to investigate their effects on pistachio fruit quality. Mean comparison of data showed that percentage of small, semi kernel, blank and none splitting fruits, and pistachios/ounce was improved by all foliar applications of fertilizer. The lowest percent of small nut and blank nut was observed in calcium and commercial complete micro-nutrient solution (2 g L -1) and iron &amp; copper (1 g L-1) treatments respectively. Pistachio fruits/ounce was improved by iron and copper treatments. Thus, it is concluded that foliar application of fertilizers increase fruit quality in pistachio trees ‘Ouhadi’.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Mehrnejad, M.R., Jalali, M.A., Mirzaei, R.

Abundance and biological parameters of psyllophagous coccinellids in pistachio orchards

(2011) Journal of Applied Entomology, 135 (9), pp. 673-681. Cited 16 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-80855136850&doi=10.1111%2fj.1439-0418.2010.01577.x&partnerID=40&md5=a81cb0707f2a347135c8a08d966f0c80

DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0418.2010.01577.x

AFFILIATIONS: Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Plant Protection Department, College of Agriculture, The University of Vali e Asr, Iran

ABSTRACT: The abundance of coccinellids on pistachio trees was monitored at both a cultivated pistachio plantation and a wild pistachio growing area in Rafsanjan, Iran. Eleven ladybird species were identified from planted pistachio trees with Adalia bipunctata (Linnaeus) and Oenopia conglobata contaminata (Menetries) the most abundant ladybirds. At the wild pistachio plantation site, 17 coccinellid species were collected, with Brumus undulatus Weise the most abundant ladybird, followed by A. bipunctata and O. conglobata contaminata. Three species of Coccinellidae were evaluated for their potential for biological control of the common pistachio psylla (CPP), Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt and Lauterer. Coccinella undecimpunctata aegyptica (Reiche), Exochomus nigripennis (Erichson) and Hippodamia variegata (Goeze) developed successfully on A. pistaciae nymphs and reproduced successfully. Development and reproduction of these ladybirds were also examined on an alternative prey, the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover, the most abundant aphid species on herbal weeds in pistachio orchards. The highest intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m value) was observed in C. undecimpunctata aegyptica, 0.22 and 0.23 when it was fed on A. pistaciae and A. gossypii Glover, respectively. In comparison, the lowest r m values (0.12 and 0.13) were found in E. nigripennis on the CPP and cotton aphid diets, respectively. Exochomus nigripennis consumed the largest number of psyllid nymphs during larval period, while the adults consumed the lowest number of psyllid nymphs daily. Although eight psyllophagous coccinellid species were collected in colonies of the CPP on pistachio trees, they did not regulate psyllid numbers below damaging levels. At present, conservation should assume a central role in biological control strategies for this pest. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag, GmbH.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Shekari, F., Pour, A.H., Rezanejad, F., Shekarian, A., Moradi, M.

The preservation of lime witches’ broom phytoplasma in key lime by tissue culture

(2011) Bulletin of Insectology, 64 (SUPPL. 1), pp. S201-S202.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-80054861389&partnerID=40&md5=140665d1b64078c8194396bee9b19536

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran;

Department of Biology, College of Sciences, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran;

Agricultural Bank of Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Iranian Pistachio Research institute, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Witches’ broom disease of small-fruited lime (WBDL) is a severe disease associated with phytoplasmas in the south of Iran. In this study maintenance of WBDL phytoplasma in key lime (Citrus aurantifolia Christm) in micropropagation is reported. After the maintenance of tissue cultures in a growth chamber, symptoms of little leaves and shortening of internodes were observed in shoots from infected plants. Micropropagated shoots that developed in tissue culture were tested for the presence of phytoplasmas using the two phytoplasma-specific primers pair P1/P7 and P3/P7. Amplification by polymerase chain reaction confirms the presence of WBDL phytoplasmas in the diseased plants 10 months after the beginning of the in vitro propagation. To our knowledge, this is the first report on maintenance of lime witches’ broom phytoplasma in key lime shoots through tissue culture in Iran.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Panahi, B., Khezri, M.

Effect of harvesting time on nut quality of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) cultivars

(2011) Scientia Horticulturae, 129 (4), pp. 730-734. Cited 18 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-79960391793&doi=10.1016%2fj.scienta.2011.05.029&partnerID=40&md5=fbd606edf03a0a8613dd42f19ede14b5

DOI: 10.1016/j.scienta.2011.05.029

AFFILIATIONS: Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Horticultural Research Institute, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran

ABSTRACT: The appropriate time of harvest is one of the most important factors affecting the quality of pistachio. Cultivars ‘Ahmad-Aghaii’, ‘Kaleh-Ghoochi’, ‘Ohadi’ and ‘Badami-Zarand’ were evaluated for qualitative indices of nut over a period of four years from 2001 to 2004. Nut samples were collected during eight successive weeks from 23 August to 11 October. Splitting, early splitting, hull cracking and hulling percentage continually increased toward the last harvest week while non-splitting, immaturity, number of nuts per ounce and moisture content decreased during the harvest weeks. The increment of splitting and the number of nuts per ounce was not significant from 20 September to the last week of harvest. Early splitting, hull cracking and aflatoxin contamination of kernel progressively increased from 13 September. Total crude fat and sugar contents showed a peak in the middle of September. The concentration of aflatoxins prior or at maturity stage of selected cultivars was lower than the critical level. In general, the appropriate time of harvest for the cultivars studied is the middle of September to avoid contamination of nuts to aflatoxin and to ensure the nut quality. This study emphasizes different quality indices for determining the optimum harvest time of pistachio crop. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

van Achterberg, C., Mehrnejad, M.R.

A new species of Megalommum Szépligeti (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Braconinae); a parasitoid of the pistachio longhorn beetle (Calchaenesthes pistacivora Holzschuh; Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) in Iran

(2011) ZooKeys, 112, pp. 21-38. Cited 5 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-79960039776&doi=10.3897%2fzookeys.112.1735&partnerID=40&md5=1921a702ffe39e1a5a2b0fe8993ee520

DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.112.1735

AFFILIATIONS: Dept. Terrestrial Zoology, NCB Naturalis, Postbus 9517, 2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands;

Pistachio Research Institute, P.O. Box 77175.435, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: A new species of the genus Megalommum Szépligeti (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Braconinae), reared from the pistachio longhorn beetle (Calchaenesthes pistacivora Holzschuh; Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is described and illustrated. The genera Curreia Ashmead, 1900 and Endovipio Turner, 1922 are new synonyms of Megalommum Szépligeti, 1900. Notes on the biology of M. pistacivorae sp. n. and a key to the West Palaearctic and Oriental species are added. The following new combinations are given: M. xanthoceps (Fahringer, 1928), comb. n., M. jacobsoni (Tobias, 1968), comb. n., M. ayyari (Watanabe, 1950), comb. n., M. philippinense (Baker, 1917), comb. n., M. dodecanesi (Ferrière, 1922), comb. n., M. ceresense (Turner, 1922), comb. n., M. inareatum (Granger, 1949), comb. n., M. antefurcale (Szépligeti, 1915) comb. n. and M. tibiale (Ashmead, 1906), comb. n. © C. van Achterberg, M.R. Mehrnejad.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Arabnezhad, H., Bahar, M., Pour, A.T.

Evaluation of genetic relationships among Iranian pistachios using microsatellite markers developed from Pistacia khinjuk Stocks

(2011) Scientia Horticulturae, 128 (3), pp. 249-254. Cited 16 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-79952439917&doi=10.1016%2fj.scienta.2011.01.028&partnerID=40&md5=431d34625bf550588bc1686414983e35

DOI: 10.1016/j.scienta.2011.01.028

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, College of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156, Iran;

Iranian Pistachio Research Institute, P.O. Box 77175435, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: To evaluate the genetic relationships among wild and cultivated Pistacia species grown in Iran and the analysis of genetic variation among Iranian pistachio genotypes, two DNA libraries enriched for dinucleotide (AG)n and trinucleotide (ATG)n microsatellite motifs were developed from Pistacia khinjuk genome. Following screening of clones by colony PCR technique, 44 clones were sequenced and 27 pairs of primers designed from flanking regions of the repeats. The examination of primer pairs, designed from P. khinjuk sequences, showed successful cross-species amplification within the genus Pistacia. A dendrogram constructed on the basis of the Minimum Evolution clustering algorithm revealed that Pistacia vera has closer relationships with P. khinjuk, than with Pistacia integerrima, Pistacia palaestina, Pistacia atlantica and Pistacia mutica. The dendrogram further distinguished the wild Sarakhs pistachio from the rest of P. vera genotypes suggesting that the domesticated genotypes of P. vera are evolved from P. vera var. Sarakhs and then this wild genotype likely develops to other local pistachios. Hence, it seems that the wild Sarakhs pistachio plays an important role in evolutionary trend of the edible pistachios in Iran. The results indicated that microsatellites developed in P. khinjuk are distributed in the genome of indigenous pistachio species including P. vera genotypes and therefore they will be useful in characterization of Iranian pistachio genotypes. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Kazemi, F., Mehrnejad, M.R.

Seasonal occurrence and biological parameters of the common green lacewing predators of the common pistachio psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae (Hemiptera: Psylloidea)

(2011) European Journal of Entomology, 108 (1), pp. 63-70. Cited 6 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-78751485876&doi=10.14411%2feje.2011.008&partnerID=40&md5=d7e1be4212718a79c376b755221c19c6

DOI: 10.14411/eje.2011.008

AFFILIATIONS: Pistachio Research Institute, P.O. Box 77175, 435, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Species in the carnea complex of the common green lacewing are predators of the common pistachio psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae in both cultivated pistachio plantations and on wild pistachio plants in Iran. The seasonal occurrence of common green lacewings was monitored in pistachio orchards from 2007 to 2008. In addition, the effect of different temperature regimes on prei-maginal development, survival and prey consumption of the predatory lacewing Chrysoperla lucasina fed on A. pistaciae nymphs were studied under controlled conditions. The adults of common green lacewings first appeared on pistachio trees in mid April and were most abundant in early July, decreased in abundance in summer and increased again in October. The relative density of common green lacewings was higher in pistachio orchards where the ground was covered with herbaceous weeds than in those without weeds. In the laboratory females of C. lucasina laid an average of 1085 eggs over 60 days at 22.5°C. The maximum prey consumption occurred at 35°C when the larvae consumed 1812 fourth instar psyllid nymphs during their larval period. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) was 0.11. The total development (egg-adult) required 385 degree-days above the theoretical lower developmental threshold of 9.6°C.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Moghadam, M.M., Hokmabadi, H.

Study on the effect of pistachio testa on the reduction of Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxin B1 production in kernels of different pistachio cultivars

(2010) Australian Journal of Crop Science, 4 (9), pp. 744-749. Cited 6 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-78649742522&partnerID=40&md5=08f715a9724b4cd8a1381574ad8c7d75

AFFILIATIONS: Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute, P.O. Box: 17175-435, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: In order to evaluate the effect of testa (pistachio seed coat) on reduction of fungal growth and aflatoxin B1 production, ten cultivars of pistachio were collected from different parts of the pistachio production area (i.e. Rafsanjan, Damghan and Ghazvin provinces in Iran). One section of the testa and 1 mm of endosperm were scraped, then 20 g of wounded kernels and 20 g of unwounded kernels were surface sterilized and placed on Petri-dishes separately (completely randomized design in 3 replications). 1 ml of the spore suspension of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus added to each Petri-dish (spore suspension adjusted to contain of 2×106 spore/ml). The plates placed over water in plastic boxes and then placed inside an incubator at 26°C. After 2.5, 5 and 8 days of inoculation, growth rate and colonization of A. flavus on wounded and unwounded pistachio kernels measured in different cultivars. In addition, aflatoxin content of inoculated kernels extracted by BF method and estimated by TLC and densitometer. The average percentage of A. flavus growth on the surface of wounded and unwounded kernels compared with t-student test. Results of this research indicated a significant difference in fungus growth rate and aflatoxin B1 production between wounded and unwounded kernels of pistachio cultivars. In other words, testa in unwounded kernels could be considered as a resistant barrier against the penetration of fungus into kernels, reducing A. flavus growth and aflatoxin B1 production as compared with wounded kernels.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Afshari, H., Hokmabadi, H., Ebadi, A., Laee, G.

Measurement of chemical and non-chemical parameters of three native pistachio cultivars of damghan region (Iran) for studying spring frost

(2010) Asian Journal of Chemistry, 22 (3), pp. 2356-2366.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-77956160774&partnerID=40&md5=654c589cd46268963af759df841eaf11

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Horticulture, Islamic Azad University, Damghan Branch, Damghan, Iran;

Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Department of Biological Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Jouybar Branch, Jouybar, Iran

ABSTRACT: Pistachio (Pistacia Vera L) is one of the most strategic products of Iran. Frost injury in recent years has exposed this product to serious risks. Determining the critical temperatures causing such damages in early spring, which are sometimes quite huge, has greatly contributed to developing and using timely prevention methods and measures aimed at reducing damages and may still be valuable in estimating inflicted losses caused by spring frost. A research project was undertaken at Islamic Azad University, Damghan Branch, in years 2007 and 2008. The experiment was conducted as factorial in a completely randomized design with two factors: cultivar type at three levels (Abbasali, Khanjari, Shahpasand) and temperature at five levels (+2, 0,-2,-4 and-6 °C) in three phases: growth of reproductive organs (swollen buds, opened flowers, newly fertilized fruits in late winter and early spring. Samples were places inside an incubator and temperature was reduced at a rate of 2 °C/h. At each temperature level some samples were taken out for studying the rate of damages. Also to determine the accumulation of proline and soluble sugars the samples were first treated and then measured in terms of proline and soluble sugar contents. Results indicated that the highest sensitivity to early spring cold was in the fully-opened flower stage and maximum damages were inflicted at-6 °C. Results also demonstrated that Abbasali and Shahpasand were the most and least resistant cultivars to spring frost, while Khanjari cultivar was recognized as semi-resistant.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Khezri, M., Talaie, A., Javanshah, A., Hadavi, F.

Effect of exogenous application of free polyamines on physiological disorders and yield of ‘Kaleh-Ghoochi’ pistachio shoots (Pistacia vera L.)

(2010) Scientia Horticulturae, 125 (3), pp. 270-276. Cited 14 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-77953134625&doi=10.1016%2fj.scienta.2010.03.014&partnerID=40&md5=48eb44acb35e960c3705791ac8c7a2a6

DOI: 10.1016/j.scienta.2010.03.014

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Horticulture, University College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran;

Department of Horticulture, Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Pistachio trees exhibit some physiological disorders such as abscission of inflorescence buds, fruit abscission, the production of blank, non-split, early-split and deformed nuts. Since the occurrence of these disorders is closely related to the yield, the effect of free polyamine treatments on these disorders and the yield was investigated in two consecutive years (“on” and “off” years). Free polyamine treatments were applied one week before and also two weeks after full bloom. Results showed that Spermine (Spm), unlike Putrescine (Put), decreased the physiological disorders of pistachio and also increased the yield. Free polyamine treatments did not affect the percentage of early-split nuts. Spermidine (Spd) decreased the percentage of both fruit abscission and deformed nuts but did not affect the yield. In both the “on” and “off” years the effect of Spm and Spd was greatly dependent on both the time of application and the concentrations used. Results of free polyamine analysis showed that exogenous application of these compounds, especially two weeks after full bloom, increased the free polyamine contents of shoots in both “on” and “off” years confirming the absorption of free polyamines via spray application in pistachio crop. Exogenous application of Spm two weeks after full bloom decreased the abscission of inflorescence buds in “on” year supporting the idea that free polyamines could trigger the abscission process of inflorescence buds. Since Spm decreased the percentage of blank, non-split and deformed nuts, it seems that Spm dominantly plays a key role in the growth and development of pistachio nuts. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Afrousheh, M., Ardalan, M., Hokmabadi, H., Afrousheh, M.

Nutrient deficiency disorders in Pistacia vera seedling rootstock in relation to eco-physiological, biochemical characteristics and uptake pattern of nutrients

(2010) Scientia Horticulturae, 124 (2), pp. 141-148. Cited 13 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-76549116362&doi=10.1016%2fj.scienta.2009.12.001&partnerID=40&md5=f32f3c40233a07bd4475ef8b3db5af91

DOI: 10.1016/j.scienta.2009.12.001

AFFILIATIONS: Soil Science Department, Agricultural College, Tehran University, Karaj, Iran;

Horticulture Department, Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute, Shahid Hosseini Sq., Rafsanjan, Kerman, Iran;

Plant Protection Dept. Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman, Iran

ABSTRACT: This study examines the effects of nitrogen (N), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn) and molybdenum (Mo) deficiencies on the eco-physiological, biochemical and growth characteristics of pistachio seedlings (Pistacia vera) in sand culture situation. This experiment, which was carried out in Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute (IPRI), seedlings of ‘Badami-e-Zarand’ were used as common rootstock. The following treatments were employed: (1) complete Hoagland’s nutrient solution; nutrient solution lacking either: (2) N, (3) Fe, (4) Mg, (5) Mn, (6) Mo, (7) distilled water without Hoagland’s solution (Control), (8) Fe-N, (9) Fe-Mn and (10) Fe-Mo. The main deficiency symptoms observed after 7 months of planting were; leaf discoloration, necrosis, scorching, defoliation and stunted growth. Seedlings that received complete nutrient solution were healthy with dark green foliage. Visual symptoms of N-deficient seedlings also coincided with the reduction in foliar levels of the concerned element. Shoot and root growth of the seedlings deficient in nutrients were also affected. Changes in shoot and root biomasses production due to treatments were statistically significant at 1% level. A reduction in height, leaf area and leaf number was noticed for various levels of nutrient element deficiencies. Analysis of some biochemical indices (chlorophyll content) and eco-physiological indices such as primary florescence chlorophyll (Fo), ratio of variable chlorophyll to maximum (Fv/Fm), leaf temperature, transpiration, stomata conduction and resistance of stomata, showed that fractions of chlorophyll, transpiration, stomata conduction and resistant of stomata in treated seedlings, particularly N-deficient seedlings, declined significantly. Chlorophyll (Fo) and ratio of variable chlorophyll to maximum (Fv/Fm) were significant at 5% level. The effects of Fe, Mn, Mg and Mo on dry matter production were statistically significant at 1% level. Synergic effects of certain elements were also evident in the present study. The typical symptoms of deficiencies of various nutrient elements can be used as a guideline for diagnosing nutrient deficiencies of pistachio in commercial nurseries and plantations. The present study also showed multi-deficiency of nutrients, produces new symptom in leaves, which differs from single deficiencies. Crown Copyright © 2009.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Mohammadi Moghaddam, T., Razavi, S.M.A., Malekzadegan, F., Shaker Ardekani, A.

Chemical composition and rheological characterization of pistachio green hull’s marmalade

(2009) Journal of Texture Studies, 40 (4), pp. 390-405. Cited 13 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-68749093270&doi=10.1111%2fj.1745-4603.2009.00188.x&partnerID=40&md5=b988fe77cabb10e9cf6a0150d83d06d3

DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-4603.2009.00188.x

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Food Science and Technology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (FUM), PO Box 91775-1163, Mashhad, Iran;

Department of Food Science and Technology, Islamic Azad University of Quchan, Quchan, Iran;

Iranian Pistachio Research Institute (IPRI), Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: This research aimed to study the effect of different levels of pistachio green hull (40-60%) and pectin (0-0.4%) on the flow characteristics of pistachio green hull’s marmalade. It was found that pistachio hull’s marmalade behaved as a pseudo-plastic fluid. Seven models were used to describe time-independent behavior of samples. To evaluate the ability of this models, two statistical parameters namely; R2 and root mean square error were used and finally power-law model was found to be the most appropriate to fit the flow curves of pistachio hull’s marmalade. Overall, the results showed that increasing the percent of pistachio hull increased the consistency coefficient in the range of 1.9-121 Pa·sn and apparent viscosity in the range of 0.67-7.95 Pa·s, whereas it decreased the flow behavior index in the range of 0.82-0.28. The change of flow behavior index and consistency coefficient with pectin did not follow a descriptive trend. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Rheological properties of semisolid foods are important for quality control and process engineering calculations. Pistachio hull’s marmalade is a semisolid gel made from puree of pistachio green hull, sugar, acid and pectin, which can be used in different formulations such as cake and cookies. Regarding the rheological data of marmalades in literature, comparisons in absolute terms do not provide useful information, possibly because of two reasons. Due to their complex mathematical geometries, some viscometers might not allow shear rate calculations and, hence, can only produce comparative rather than absolute flow behavior data. Another reason could be the differences in the production method or raw material used. Even very minor changes in composition or processing variables can dramatically influence the rheological properties. The knowledge obtained in this work will enable the pistachio processors to increase the efficiency of the design and quality control throughout the processing of this new product. © 2009, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Reza Mehrnejad, M., Basirat, M.

Parasitoid complex of the pistachio twig borer moth, Kermania pistaciella, in Iran

(2009) Biocontrol Science and Technology, 19 (5), pp. 499-510. Cited 5 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-68949136724&doi=10.1080%2f09583150902887610&partnerID=40&md5=5d7c2db97b7f477747df191c97c1b478

DOI: 10.1080/09583150902887610

AFFILIATIONS: Pistachio Research Institute, PO Box 77175.435, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: The parasitoid complex of the pistachio twig borer moth, Kermania pistaciella Amsel (Lepidoptera: Tineidae), a native pest of pistachio trees, was investigated at 27 pistachio plantation sites in Kerman province, the major pistachio growing area of Iran. The present study was conducted to document the naturally established parasitoid complex and to assess the need for improving the biological control of this species. In total, 22,390 moth cocoons were collected from 186 samples collected from commercial orchards during 2006-2008 and kept singly in controlled conditions to rear immature insects. An average of 2.8% of moth cocoons had been attacked by predators at time of sampling. Of the collected cocoons, on average 46.7% completed development and emerged as adult moths, no insects emerged from 8%, suggesting that the moth or wasp died before maturing, and parasitoids emerged from the remaining 42.5%. The overall percentage of host cocoons from which wasps emerged ranged from 25.6 to 59%. Fifteen hymenopterous parasitoid species were recovered from cocoons, of which three species were primary parasitoids, two were obligatory hyperparasitoids and the remaining 10 species were facultative hyperparasitoids. The primary parasitoid, Chelonus kermakiae (Tobias) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), was the most abundant comprising almost 85% of the total emerging parasitoids. In addition, a further four species of larval parasitoid developed within the PTBM’s larval tunnels in pistachio fruit cluster-stem tissue. Conservation of these parasitoids in the pistachio growing areas is recommended since a high level of parasitized moths’ cocoons was found at the majority of experimental sites. © 2009 Taylor & Francis.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Hassani, M.R., Nouri-Ganbalani, G., Izadi, H., Shojai, M., Basirat, M.

Economic injury level of the psyllid, Agonoscena pistaciae, on pistachio, Pistacia vera cv. Ohadi

(2009) Journal of Insect Science, 9, art. no. 40, . Cited 6 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-68449102682&partnerID=40&md5=d9a62a2b93376efdb84783b9814e290a

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Entomology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran;

University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran;

Vali-e-Asr University, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: The pistachio psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt and Lauterer (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is a major pest of pistachio trees, Pistacia vera L. (Sapindalis: Anacardiaceae) throughout pistachio-producing regions in Iran. Different density levels of A. pistaciae nymphs were maintained on pistachio trees by different insecticide dosages to evaluate the relationship between nymph density and yield loss (weight of 1000 nuts). Psylla nymph densities were monitored weekly by counting nymphs on pistachio terminal leaflets. There was a significant reduction in weight of 1000 nuts as seasonal averages of nymphs increased. Regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between nymph density and weight of 1000 nuts. The economic injury levels varied as a function of market values, management costs, insecticide efficiency and yield loss rate and ranged from 7.7 to 30.7 nymphal days per terminal leaflet, based on weight of 1000 nuts.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Afshari, H., Tajabadipour, A., Hokmabadi, H., Moghadam, M.M.

Determining the chilling requirements of four Pistachio cultivars in Semnan province (Iran)

(2009) African Journal of Agricultural Research, 4 (2), pp. 55-59. Cited 7 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-78650302041&partnerID=40&md5=2275e19a488c017a118aadfd23882d47

AFFILIATIONS: Horticulture Department, Islamic Azad University, Damghan Branch, Iran;

Scientific board of Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute, P. O. Box: 77175-435, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Most deciduous trees enter dormancy in respect to the shortening day length in fall; dormant buds require a period of chilling to break this rest. The present research was carried out under laboratory conditions in order to determine the chilling requirements of 4 local cultivars of Damghan city. In this experiment some traits of flower bud breaking of mentioned cultivars in different chilling times (500, 600, 700, 800, 900, 1000, 1100, 1200, 1300, and 1400 h) were studied. So an experiment as factorial in completely randomized design established in two levels of cultivar and chilling. Results indicated that the chilling requirements of Akbari cultivar were higher than others. This was due to genetic differences among cultivars. Due to the direct effect of the chilling amount during blooming period from the very entering time of the buds to the greenhouse a measure known as the Chilling Requirement Index (CRI) was used. This index seemed to calculate the chilling effects more accurately. Chilling requirements were estimated to be 1100 h for Khanjari, Shahpasand, and Abasali cultivars and 1200 h for Akbari cultivar respectively. However, chilling more than the above amount was found to be effective on re- duction of the bud blooming time. © 2009 Academic Journals.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Manickavasagam, S., Mehrnejad, M.R., Noyes, J.S.

Cheiloneurus pistaciae sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) a facultative hyperparasitoid of Kermania pistaciella Amsel (Lepidoptera: Tineidae), a pest of pistachio trees in Iran

(2008) Zootaxa, (1958), pp. 61-64. Cited 3 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-58149456469&partnerID=40&md5=6d96360240faeb87b154f82bced7edc5

AFFILIATIONS: Dept. of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Chidambaram – 608 002, India;

Pistachio Research Institute, P.O. Box 77175.435, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Department of Entomology, Natural History Museum, South Kensington, London SW7 5BD, England, United Kingdom

DOCUMENT TYPE: Letter

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Ghazvini, R.F., Sajadian, H., Hokmabadi, H.

Effects of some pistachio rootstocks on leaf photosynthesis rate of three Iranian commercial pistachio cultivars

(2008) Acta Horticulturae, 772, pp. 241-244. Cited 2 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-58149131169&partnerID=40&md5=0e4e1c06333732c33a33b05e3b35eb21

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran;

Iran Pistachio Research Institute (IPRI), P.O. Box 77175-435, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: In this research, photosynthesis activity of three Iranian commercial pistachio cultivars was evaluated during the spring and summer of 2005 in the 6 stages of nut growth and development in the Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute (IPRI). Selected rootstocks included Pistacia vera cv. Badami riz, P. vera var. sarakhs, P. atlantica subsp. mutica, P. atlantica subsp. atlantica and the cultivars were ‘Ohadi’ ‘Kalle-Ghoochi’ and ‘Ahmad-Aghai’. Photosynthesis rate (Pn, μmol m-2 s-1) was measured with an LCA-4 apparatus. The highest photosynthetic rates coincided with the end of endocarp growing and at the beginning of endocarp lignification. The lowest photosynthetic rate was observed at the harvest time. Within rootstocks, trees on sarakhs and atlantica showed the highest photosynthetic rates while trees on rootstocks of cv. Badami riz and mutica had the lowest rate of photosynthesis.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Nia, A.S., Hokmabadi, H., Ershadi, A., Gholami, M.

Leaf photosynthesis of six Iranian pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) cultivars at six fruit development stages

(2008) Acta Horticulturae, 772, pp. 291-294. Cited 1 time.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-58149127151&partnerID=40&md5=4bbb04ffc13ebb8e1df2ed5d34c09403

AFFILIATIONS: Dept. of Hort., Faculty of Agriculture, University of Bu-Ali Sina, Hamadan, Iran;

Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Kerman 77175.435, Iran

ABSTRACT: Photosynthesis rate (PI) in the leaves from braches with and without fruits in six Iranian commercial pistachio cultivars (‘Ouhadi’, ‘Ahmad-Aghaie’, ‘Akbari’, ‘Kalleh-Ghochi’, Haratii’, and ‘Rezaie-Zoudras’) was studied during five fruit development stages (beginning of endocarp growth, pit hardening, beginning of endosperm rapid growth, end of embryo development, and ripening) and post harvest. There was a significant difference in PI among cultivars. ‘Rezaie-Zoudras’ and ‘Haratii’ had the highest and the lowest PI respectively. Cultivars showed significant differences in PI at different fruit development stages. The highest PI was observed in the first stage followed by the second, third and sixth stages. It seems that both temperature and fruit development stage affected PI. There was no significant difference in PI between with fruit and without fruit branches.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Hosseinifard, J., Salehi, M.H., Esfandiarpour, I., Mohammadi, J.

Spatial variability of groundwater quality and its relationship with pistachio yield in Anar region, Iran

(2008) Journal of Applied Sciences, 8 (20), pp. 3697-3702. Cited 4 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-67650082458&doi=10.3923%2fjas.2008.3697.3702&partnerID=40&md5=1bd4199a7848cb8bbf95504df7464edd

DOI: 10.3923/jas.2008.3697.3702

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Nutrition and Irrigation, Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran;

Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, Vali-e-Asr University, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to examine the spatial variability of some groundwater quality factors and to determine their relationship with pistachio yield in pistachio growing areas of Anar, Iran. One hundred and fifty seven water samples from the wells of the studied area were determined for electrical conductivity (EC), Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, SO2-4, HCO-3, Cl-, total hardness and Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR). Groundwater levels of the wells were also recorded. Results showed high positive correlation among EC, Na+, Cl-, Mg2+, Ca2+ and total hardness and high negative correlation between water-table level and other variables. Most of the area had EC&gt;8 dS m-1 and SAR≥13 (meq L-1)0.5. Kriging maps of the variables except water-table level are highly corresponded. Water-table level had a reverse pattern in comparison with other factors. The lowest quality of groundwater was found in the eastern, southern and the northern parts of the area where its negative effects on pistachio yield have been reported. Modem irrigation techniques and saving high quality waters in order to mix them with poor quality waters in the area is necessary for sustainable pistachio production and also preventing the reduction of water-table level in the area. © 2008 Asian Network for Scientific Information.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Sohrabi, N., Montasser-Kouhsari, S., Motamed, N.

Biochemical study of storage proteins of Akbari and Kalehghoochi pistachio cultivars (Pistacia vera) in Rafsanjan, Iran

(2008) International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 10 (3), pp. 321-324.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-47249105961&partnerID=40&md5=23522041b229e8bb9a29e77078fd1f95

AFFILIATIONS: Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute, P.O. Box 77175/435, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Tehran, Iran

ABSTRACT: Seeds are one of the richest sources of plant proteins. The storage proteins have no enzymatic activity and constitute a source of amino acids, nitrogen and carbon skeletons for the developing seedlings. Morphological study of aleurone grains indicated that pistachio nuts had crystalloid protein bodies but no globoid protein bodies. The storage proteins in aleurone grains of two pistachio cultivars (Akbari & Kalehghoochi) in Rafsanjan in Iran were extracted as dry, soaked and during germination. After SDS-PAGE electrophoresis, determination of molecular weight and amount of storage proteins, we found that all of these amounts were the highest in dry grains. These amounts decrease in other grains, except in aleurone of pistachio grains at 6 and 8 days and were similar for both cultivars.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Reza Mehrnejad, M.

Seasonal biology and abundance of Psyllaephagus pistaciae, a biocontrol agent of the common pistachio psylla Agonoscena pistaciae

(2008) Biocontrol Science and Technology, 18 (4), pp. 409-417. Cited 6 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-45849151735&doi=10.1080%2f09583150801979179&partnerID=40&md5=850e792c9d747b2b6cf96aeff6e8c6c9

DOI: 10.1080/09583150801979179

AFFILIATIONS: Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: The solitary endoparasitoid Psyllaephagus pistaciae Ferrière (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), is the most widely distributed biological control agent of the common pistachio psyllid, Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt and Lauterer (Hemiptera: Psylloidea), in Iran. The pupation and overwintering sites of diapausing parasitoids and the psyllid were studied for 2 years using emergence traps in pistachio orchards in Rafsanjan, Iran. The psyllid mummies containing the overwintering parasitoid adhered to pistachio leaves and were carried on these leaves away from the tree when they latter senesced. The present results verified that plant litter which included dried grasses and old pistachio leaves tended to support a greater population of adult winter-form psyllid and psyllid mummies during the winter through early spring than other options examined. Adult parasitoids appeared in the field in early April, about 30 days after the emergence of adult psyllids, but almost at the same time as the hatching of the first generation psyllid nymphs in early April. Rates of parasitism of CPP were generally low throughout most of the year, ranging from 1 to 5%, but rose in late autumn to about 11%. Results suggest that the density of P. pistaciae is not great enough to keep pace with the psyllid populations in these orchards. They explain why growers consider it necessary to apply pesticides for this pest. However, this parasitoid undoubtedly does play an important role in the natural control of A. pistaciae late in the growing season, particularly in non-sprayed orchards. Conservation of these natural enemies should be one of the objectives in the development of sustainable pest management programs. © 2008 Taylor & Francis.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Hokmabadi, H.

Effects of rewashing pistachio using a floating tank process on reducing spore density of Aspergillus flavus

(2008) Acta Horticulturae, 768, pp. 343-348.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-56349135575&doi=10.17660%2fActaHortic.2008.768.45&partnerID=40&md5=cba271eb032cce5903ba946f13bf25d9

DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2008.768.45

AFFILIATIONS: Iran Pistachio Research Institute, P.O. Box 77175-435, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Aflatoxins are produced by certain strains of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. These fungi are ubiquitous and the potential for contamination of foodstuffs and animal feeds is widespread. The occurrence and magnitude of aflatoxin contamination varies with geographical and seasonal factors, and also with the conditions under which a crop is grown, harvested, and stored. Within processing lines in Iran there is a floating tank system in which spores are transformed from contaminated to non-contaminated nuts. Installation of a machine nut washing system, with 8 nozzles into the line after the floating tank, was evaluated to optimize distance of nozzles from the nuts, water pressure and angle of water trajectory for removing spores on contaminated pistachio nuts. Spore density of A. flavus from 100 nuts from different treatments were evaluated by culturing on an AFAP media. Spore density of A. flavus was decreased in all treatments compared with unwashed control pistachio nuts. It is recommended that all processors should install a spray washing system in line after the floating tank to obtain improved performance and hygiene.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Sedaghat, R.

Sustainable irrigation for pistachio farms in Iran: An economic analysis

(2008) Acta Horticulturae, 769, pp. 201-206. Cited 2 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-56349162266&doi=10.17660%2fActaHortic.2008.769.27&partnerID=40&md5=4edeb395d8cf36ec5f555f23c2a1f3c0

DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2008.769.27

AFFILIATIONS: Economics and Marketing Division, Iranian Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Iran stood first both in production and export of pistachio in the world. According to the data from FAOSTAT information bank, Iran accounted for 52.89, 58.00, 64.79 and 65.84% of world production, cultivation area, export and export value respectively during the last decade. Although agricultural land availability is not a major constraint in Iran, but the availability of quality water has been basically reported as a chief hindrance. Moreover, due to the high resistance of pistachio to water stress, it has been extensively planted in dry zones of the country where no any other crop can be planted economically. This study was aimed to overview, the agricultural water availability, water salinity, irrigation sources and irrigation systems. The study was performed by interviewing 100 sample respondents which were selected through a multi stage random sampling technique in Kerman Province (Iran) in 2003-2004. The results revealed that 70% of farmers had agricultural water limitation, 82% were utilizing the non-quality water with salinity degree above 5 miUimohs. For 94% of the sample farms, water were extracted from Deep-bore wells and lastly 97% of farms were managing under a traditional irrigation systems popularly called flood irrigation. All the cited bottlenecks, entailed farmers high water extraction costs, low water use efficiency and low pistachio productivity per unit of water utilized. Consequently, the profitability of pistachio orchards has declined recently, mainly owing to water limitation in the study area. To achieve a certain level of profitability that ensures a minimum net benefits, at least in short run, farmers have to put a high pressure by extracting more and more underground water. This is a serious alarming not only now but also in years to come, for both pistachio orchard owners and the government as well. According to the study results, it may be generalized that, the pistachio farming system is not stable, expecting huge problems for years ahead. To avoid the negative payoff in future, defining common property rights by enhancing NGOs and social groups and also changing tax collection system was recommended.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Sedaghat, R.

Growth rate analysis for pistachio production and export in Iran during 1991-2002

(2008) Acta Horticulturae, 769, pp. 217-219. Cited 1 time.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-56349104679&doi=10.17660%2fActaHortic.2008.769.30&partnerID=40&md5=9ab4085e22bbaa59dd4fe90c47da3437

DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2008.769.30

AFFILIATIONS: Economics and Marketing Division, Iranian Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjani, Iran

ABSTRACT: Pistachio is the most important agricultural crop cultivated extensively in Iran’s dry zones. The country earns sizable income from pistachio export to many countries. This paper aims to study the production and export growth of pistachio in Iran. Time series data on area, yield, production, export quantity and export values collected for the period 1991-2002. Exponential trend equation was used for the aim of the study. The growth rate of area planted was 5.12% and significant against non significant values for production, yield, export quantity and export values for the whole study period (1991-2002). In first sub period (1991-1996) except yield which had a non-significant growth rate, the other factors had significant and positive growth rates. In second sub period (1997-2002) it was the only area which experienced a positive and significant growth rate of 2.33%.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Nazoori, F., Talaie, A., Javanshah, A.

Chilling requirement studies on flower buds in some male pistachio genotypes (Pistacia vera L.)

(2008) Journal of Applied Horticulture, 10 (1), pp. 81-84.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84866499490&partnerID=40&md5=33238faffe1bb8d48c3650797d80dbaa

AFFILIATIONS: Rafnajan’s Payam Nor University, Iran;

Department of Horticultural Science, University of Tehran, Iran;

Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Effects of different chilling periods were evaluated on growth and development of floral buds of male seedling trees (Pistacia.vera L.) for chilling requirements of male genotypes helpful in predicting overlapping of flowering with female trees and escape from spring cold damage. The chilling requirement and responses of male genotypes to chilling treatment were determined by applying eight levels of chilling to shoots (i.e. 600-1300 h) at 3±1 °C. Based on the effect of chilling hours on bud break on four male pistachio genotypes were grouped to early (P1 and P6) and late flowering (P7 and P10) types. Percentage and rate of bud break, duration of flowering, growth and development of bud (length and width) were evaluated. The results indicated that genotypes had different chilling requirement. Among the male pistachio genotypes, the adequate chilling hours (bud break &gt;80%) for P1, P6, P7 and P10 genotypes were 800, 700, 1100, and 1300 hours, respectively. P1 and P6 had low chilling requirement (700 hours) for 50% bud break compared to P7 and P10 (900 and 800 hours). Increased chilling led to decreased heat unit requirements for sprouting, resulting in greater overall growth and development. Chilling was a determining factor in floral bud break for all the genotypes, increasing chilling also produced greater bud break percentages. All genotypes required fewer heat units for bud break as chilling increased. Increasing the chilling hours also increased the length and width of flower buds and reduced duration of flowering.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Hokmabadi, H., Haidarinezhad, A., Barfeie, R., Nazaran, M.H., Ashtiani, M., Aboutalebi, A.

A new iron chelate introduction and their effect on quality of pistachio and as an iron fortification for better food quality

(2007) Acta Horticulturae, 741, pp. 173-180. Cited 1 time.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-70449119191&partnerID=40&md5=3f71a3c4afe722d3c4ea7878eeaa08cc

AFFILIATIONS: Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute, P.O. Box 77175.435, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Horticultural Dept., Fac. Of Agriculture, Azad University of Jahrom, Jahrom, Iran;

General Directors of Sodur Ahrar Shargh Co. Niavaran, Tehran, Iran;

Sales Manager of Sodur Ahrar Shargh Co. Niavaran, Tehran, Iran

ABSTRACT: Iron chelate is one of the most effective fertilizers all around the globe. It is applied to treat chlorosis in lawns, plants, shrubs and trees as well as iron deficiency in different types of soil. A new Iron chelate with new formula is produced in Iran. Khazra iron chelate has the ability to provide active Iron for plants in quite difficult situations. Granular solid fertilizer of Khazra Iron chelate has a very stable and strong complex, which provides at least 9 percent soluble iron for plants when added to soils with different pH, ranging from 3 to 10. This chelate also can be applied as foliar spraying. We applied different amounts of this chelate both as soil applying and foliar spraying on Iranian pistachio cultivars in 5 different areas of pistachio production in Kerman province and the results were compared with 400 kg of iron Sulfate per hectare and control (without any iron applying as fertilizer). Results indicated with 20 kg of Khazra chelate during the winter as soil fertilizer in fertilizer channel and foliar spraying with 1% concentration of mentioned chelate after two weeks of full bloom increased amount of iron and calcium, in fruit and also about 40% increased in percentage of soluble sugar, but there was no significant deference between treatments in amount of fatty acid in nuts. In this paper we will discuss the effects of this chelate on quality of fruits and possibility of using it as iron fortificant for food fortification.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Mehrnejad, M.R., Copland, M.J.W.

Host discrimination by the endoparasitoid Psyllaephagus pistaciae (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae): A case of time-dependent ability

(2007) Biocontrol Science and Technology, 17 (4), pp. 401-411. Cited 8 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-34247210274&doi=10.1080%2f09583150701309196&partnerID=40&md5=5a0d8df044ed7f4826f6b53f99b3ad1d

DOI: 10.1080/09583150701309196

AFFILIATIONS: Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Department of Agricultural Sciences, Imperial College at Wye, Ashford, Kent, United Kingdom;

Pistachio Research Institute, P.O. Box 77175 435, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Host-discrimination behavior by the koinobiont parasitoid, Psyllaephagus pistaciae Ferrìre (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), the major biocontrol agent of the common pistachio psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt & Lauterer (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), in Iran, was investigated in the laboratory. The results demonstrated that P. pistaciae quickly detected and avoided freshly parasitized hosts, either after antennating or by probing with their ovipositor. However, this discriminatory ability declined with time, probably influenced by both external and internal markers left by the previous ovipositing female. The results also confirmed that female P. pistaciae responded to changes in host quality associated with the parasitoid’s larval development 4 days after the initial parasitization, clearly indicating that the second female could detect the presence of the larvae and adjust her host-selection decision. In addition, psyllid nymphs treated topically with a solution of Dufour’s gland were rejected by the parasitoid, showing that Dufour’s gland secretion had a significant effect as a host marking chemical. The current study also showed that superparasitism increased the host-mortality and that the rate of encapsulation decreased, suggesting that, when two eggs are laid in the same psyllid nymph, only one parasitoid develops to an adult. © 2007 Taylor & Francis.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Hokmabadi, H., Pour, A.T., Moradi, M., Sedaghati, N., Esmaeilpour, A., Moghadam, M.M., Mirdamadiha, F., Arjmand, M.

A part of IPRI (Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute) research finding related to pistachio hygienic production

(2007) Acta Horticulturae, 741, pp. 259-264.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-70449106425&doi=10.17660%2fActaHortic.2007.741.31&partnerID=40&md5=de9c2f3b051744b1ad23bb0af6638836

DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2007.741.31

AFFILIATIONS: Pistachio Research Institute, P.O.Box:77175-435, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Pistachio Research Station, Damghan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Pistachio is one of the major horticultural products of with especial economic importance. In average, 70% of Iranian pistachio nuts are exported. They have a value in exportation and the economy of Iran. The area under pistachio cultivation is estimated 300.000 hectares with yield production about 240.000 ton dried pistachio nuts annually. Due to suitable climate condition, Iranian’s pistachio holds high quality and it is unique companied its competitors. Contamination of pistachio fruit to aflatoxin is one of the most important problems what threats pistachio exportation and food safety. Research on pistachio production in Iran was started in 1960; I.P.R.I (Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute) was established in 1993 with research on pistachio in 6 departments. In pistachio we found that the most important in contamination of pistachio with aflatoxin is cracking of hull before harvest. Early splitting and cracks on pistachio hull are considered as one of the most important factors that led to contamination of pistachio to molds. In early splitting both hull and shell of pistachio will crack contemporarily and kernel will aggress by aflatoxin producer directly. It was found that there is direct correlation between early split pistachios percentage and their contamination to aflatoxin. Appearance characteristics of contaminated pistachios to aflatoxin are different. Some of effective factors to early split formation are cultivar and rootstock type, age, quantity of crop, irrigation, nutrition, soil, temperature, humidity and etc. Our results indicated that long irrigation intervals and deficit irrigation of pistachio trees in late April until early June increased substantially (until 90%) ES formation in comparison with regular irrigation. In order to prevention of aflatoxin contamination in pistachio fruits harvest time important factor. Delaying in harvest time also increased colored nuts percentage. Observance of healthy points in processing stages (washing, drying and storing) can decrease contaminant of pistachios to aflatoxin in orchard. Separating of contaminated nuts on basis of their physical and appearance characteristics reduce aflatoxin contamination. In addition, suitable harvest time must be selected after harvest rapid transformation to processing stage is as important as well. In processing stage correct processing must be taken. Best processing is best separation of abnormal pistachio from normal ones. Existence and/or percentage of deformed, yellow shell discoloration and Shell discoloration pistachios can apply as a factor to determine contamination of pistachio bulks, and also they are the most important sources of contamination. In this paper it will review some new finding in IPRI in case of hygienic pistachio production.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Baninasab, B., Rahemi, M., Javanshah, A.

Effects of time of foliar application of nitrogen and its concentrations on the flower bud retention in pistachio trees

(2007) International Journal of Soil Science, 2 (1), pp. 40-47. Cited 1 time.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-34249940600&doi=10.3923%2fijss.2007.40.47&partnerID=40&md5=d7b5d99f9664fb3587b165deacc74822

DOI: 10.3923/ijss.2007.40.47

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran;

Iranian Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Department of Horticultural Science, College of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156, Iran

ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to test the effects of different concentrations (0, 0.3 and 0.6%) of nitrogen and application dates (May 6, June 17 and July 18) on flower bud retention of pistachio (cv. Owhadi) trees. The results showed that nitrogen significantly increased the flower bud retention, nitrogen level of leaf, current shoot and bud, photosynthesis rate, chlorophyll content and leaf area. Nitrogen was more effective in increasing flower bud retention of pistachio trees when applied at 0.3% on June 17. Abscission of flower buds decreased progressively as nitrogen content in leaf, current shoot and flower bud and also leaf area increased. It was concluded that application of nitrogen to the pistachio trees might be a useful method in decreasing flower bud abscission and increasing crop in the following year. © 2007 Academic Journals.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Javanshah, A., Alipour, H., Hadavi, F.

A model for assessing the chill units received in Kerman and Rafsanjan areas

(2006) Acta Horticulturae, 726, pp. 221-225. Cited 5 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-33846556194&partnerID=40&md5=e01476b26aa44a07036cb7bd0041a91b

AFFILIATIONS: Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: In order to perform multivariate analysis and estimating the annual chilling requirement, aerology graphs were studied in a period of 7 years in two cities of Kerman province and chilling requirements were calculated in November, December, January, February and March from 1994 to 2000 by UTAH and O to 7°C models. The results of correlation analysis showed that the chilling requirement hours per year in O to 7°C model had a positive and significant correlation with the chilling requirement of December and March; the correlation coefficient (R) was 0.863 and 0.72 respectively. UTAH model had a positive and significant correlation with the chilling requirement of November and January with a correlation coefficient (R) of 0.739 and 0.763 respectively. The results of simple linear regression identified that the following equations exist among total annual chilling hours and chilling months of December and January: Y= 775.7+1.426 x1 R2= 0.81 Y= 583.6+1.54 x2, R2= 0.8 Y= total annual chilling hours x1= chilling hours in December calculated on 0-7°C model in Kerman x2=chilling hours in December calculated on 0-7°C model in Rafsanjan The results of multiple regression analysis showed that there were significant multiple regression equations between total annual chilling hours and monthly chilling hours in both models and areas. By using these equations for calculating chilling hours in some autumn and winter months of the year, the total annual accessible chilling hours can be forecasted. This is very useful to prevent lack of chilling by applying chemical treatments for the best flowering and fruit set.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Emami, S.Y., Mehrnejad, M.R.

Weed aphids and their parasitoids in pistachio orchards in Kerman province

(2006) Acta Horticulturae, 726, pp. 437-439. Cited 2 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-33846554834&partnerID=40&md5=3840bfd37f9fe7638e8a72d0766fa082

AFFILIATIONS: Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute, P. O. Box 77175.435, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Many species of weeds grow in pistachio orchards in Kerman province, Iran. Some species grow rapidly in the late winter. Two weeds species like Glycyrrhiza glabra and Alhagi camelorum are known as the major weeds of pistachio orchards at early spring. These weeds are being contaminated by two aphid species containing Aphis gossypii Glover and Aphis craccivora Koch in pistachio orchards. However, these aphids are found as suitable hosts for several primary and secondary parasitoids. Samplings on the aphids’ mummies showed that the parasitoid Lysiphlebus fabarum Marshall is the only primary parasitoid on the weeds aphids. Four more wasp species, e.g. Syrphophagus aphidivorus (Mayr), Pachyneuron aphidis (Bouché), Pachyneuron cremifaniae (=leucopisida) Masis and Marietta picta (André) act as secondary parasitoid (hyperparasitoid) on weeds aphids. Syrphophagus aphidivorus was found as the most important hyperparasitoid attacking L. fabarum. In all, it comprised 50.5% of the parasitoids that emerged from aphid mummies. The other hyperparasitoids such as P. cremifaniae, P. aphidis, and M. picta are comprised 8.93%, 8.78%, and 3.56% of the wasp’s frequency, respectively. Based on the available information and present results it is concluded that there are important ecological relationships among the weeds, weeds’ aphids, common pistachio psylla, and their parasitoids and hyperparasitoids. The parasitized weed aphids are considered as the alternative hosts for secondary parasitoids of the common pistachio psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae. Hence, we believe that activity of weed aphids’ primary parasitoid has a negative effect on the efficiency of psyllid primary parasitoid, Psyllaephagus pistaciae.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Ghadarijani, M.M., Javanshah, A.

Distribution of aflatoxin in processed pistachio nut terminals

(2006) Acta Horticulturae, 726, pp. 431-435. Cited 6 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-33846548051&partnerID=40&md5=49dcb695d717dc1847de2218c930679d

AFFILIATIONS: Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites that are produced in foods and feeds by some Aspergillus species in Section Flavi. Distribution of aflatoxins in pistachio bulks and their sources are the main factors in pistachio nuts contamination by aflatoxinSampling was done from final, small, yellow shell discoloration and floating pistachios at pistachio processing terminals in Kerman (6 terminals) and Yazd (1 terminal) provinces in 2002 and 2003. To determine the role of re-hulled pistachios in contamination, sampling was done from several terminals and samples were analyzed in stained and non-stained pistachios. The results indicated that concentration of aflatoxin B1 increased in final, small, and yellow shell discoloration pistachios and decreased in yellow shell discoloration, stained and deformed pistachios. The existence or percentage of yellow shell discoloration, stained and deformed pistachios can be used to determine contamination of pistachio bulks. Rehulled, stained and non-stained pistachios had contamination by aflatoxin B1 and 66% non-stained pistachios contained aflatoxin B1 higher than the permitted limit. This is the first report to determine the role of non-stained re-hulled pistachios in contamination of pistachio nuts by aflatoxin. Aflatoxin concentration varies according to type of processing terminal and location. The least amount was observed in semi mechanized terminal and pistachio sample in Yazd province. Results of this research can be applied in sorting contaminated pistachios from healthy pistachios in processing stages.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Sedaghati, N., Alipour, H.

The effect of different time of irrigation on occurrence of Early Split (ES) of pistachio nuts

(2006) Acta Horticulturae, 726, pp. 583-586. Cited 4 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-33846537399&partnerID=40&md5=1fcca29d6b637454444e5fb9e9a54924

AFFILIATIONS: Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute, P.O. Box: 77175-435, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Early split (ES) fruits are known as undesirable products, which both the fruit’s hull and shell split before maturing. Insects and molds, especially those that produce the potent toxins aflatoxins, usually invade these fruits. The present study was carried out in the Rafsanjan suburb pistachio orchards during 2001-2004. The study comprised 10 treatments including two irrigation intervals (25 days, 45 days) and five irrigation skipping in each irrigation interval. During the growing season, amount of ES pistachio fruits was evaluated in experimental plots. Our results indicated that long irrigation intervals and deficit irrigation of pistachio trees in late April until early June increased substantially (until 90%) ES formation in comparison to regular irrigation, at harvest stage. Overall importance of suitable irrigation management had been illustrated in decreasing of ES nuts formation.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Bassirat, M.

Determination of heat requirements for pistachio twig borer moth, Kermania pistaciella

(2006) Acta Horticulturae, 726, pp. 519-523. Cited 2 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-33846516908&partnerID=40&md5=4c93aa1a1d54fe562e139898aa28ab27

AFFILIATIONS: Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute, P. O. Box 77175.435, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: The pistachio twig borer moth, Kermania pistaciella Amsel (Lep.: Tineidae) is one of the most important pests of cultivated pistachio trees (Pistacia vera L.) in Iran. This study was carried out in order to determine heat requirements for different developmental stages of this pest. Two pistachio orchards with high level of infestation to pistachio twig borer were selected in Rafsanjan. The emergence period for pupal cocoon and adult were recorded in two pistachio orchards through four years. Minimum threshold temperatures were calculated according to the least coefficient of variation method for different developmental stages. Cumulative effective temperatures were calculated for different percentages of pupal cocoon and adult emergence. Results showed that emergence period of pupal cocoon started in late February and ended in early April. Adult emergence occurred from late March until late April; however it peaked at April 13th until to 18th. Minimum threshold temperatures for larvae to pupal cocoon, larvae to adult and pupal cocoon to adult were obtained 10°C 11°C and 12°C respectively. Cumulative effective temperatures for occurrence of 50% pupal cocoon and 50% adult emergence from overwintering larvae under field conditions were 73.6 and 182.3 degree-days (°D) respectively. Cumulative effective temperature for occurrence of 50% adult emergence from, 50% pupal cocoon with minimum threshold temperature 12°C was 103.4 degree days. Cumulative effective temperature for occurrence of 65% adult emergence from overwintering larvae and 50% pupal cocoon with minimum threshold temperature 11°C and 12°C were 213.8, 126.9 degree days respectively.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Ardakani, A.Sh.

The vital role of pistachio processing industries in development of Iran non-oil exports

(2006) Acta Horticulturae, 726, pp. 579-581. Cited 3 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-33846476726&partnerID=40&md5=79d6f500502bf6c659e2f5dfa8d272e7

AFFILIATIONS: Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute, P.O. Box: 77175/435, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Pistachio, the second non-oil and the third exported good of Iran, is one of the most delicious and most expensive snacks of all other nuts and protein materials. Because pistachio is exported as a raw product (with his special problems), existence of suitable processing industries (such as pistachio oil, pistachio butter, pistachio chocolate, pistachio halva, using pistachio in meat industry, confectionery, sauces,…) and byproduct industries (using pistachio hull in production of furfural, etc.) seems to be basically necessary. It is an important point that in Iran there is a potential condition for the production of various and high valuable food products. Of course, the development of these industries needs strong and careful research and the acquisition of suitable technology for each product. In this study we calculated that the added value of 300,000 tons of pistachio production annually (with value of 933 million dollars), including only four products of pistachio processing industry (split pistachio , pistachio kernel , pistachio shred and pistachio powder) is about 58 million dollars. This shows that processing industry is very important in the improvement of current situation.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Ezzatabadi, M.A.

Measuring willingness to pay for agricultural insurance: A case study of pistachio producers in Iran

(2006) Acta Horticulturae, 726, pp. 675-677.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-33846552379&partnerID=40&md5=a4164419797ee73e42a9622b8c99e882

AFFILIATIONS: Irani’s Pistachio Research Institute (IPRI), P. O. Box: 77175/435, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: In this study, primary data was collected by interviewing 300 sample farmers using a two stage cluster sampling method in Iran. Willingness to pay for pistachio insurance was measured directly and indirectly. The results indicated that if farmers’ risk convictions and preferences were the only two factors affecting decision making, the willingness to pay for insurance would be very high. In this respect, pistachio producers would pay not only a fair premium, but also loading costs. More investigations showed that, in addition to risk convictions and preferences, factors such as government policies, off-farm work, financial restrictions, moral hazard and adverse selection were considered in decision making toward insurance. These factors reduced the average willingness to pay to 73.27% of the fair premium.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Farbood, F., Ezzatabadi, M.A.

The effect of time allocation pattern in rural households on using information technology: A case study of Rafsanjan pistachio producers

(2006) Acta Horticulturae, 726, pp. 679-687.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-33846544996&partnerID=40&md5=b06d9e0f1f8e6288bf2f81f83cecde8f

AFFILIATIONS: Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute (IPRI), P.O. Box: 77175/435, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Information technology has a key role in agricultural development. Knowing the information system and knowing how to contact receivers is important too. So, determining the best extension methods for conducting information to farmers also plays a key role in this regard. In this study, the extension channels used by Rafsanjan pistachio producers were determined. In addition, the effect of time allocation pattern in rural households on efficiency and efficacy of these methods was investigated. Primary data was collected by interviewing 540 sample farmers using a two stage cluster sampling method. The results showed that TV is the most general information tool, used by 97% of the farmers. Also, radio, and extension journals are used by 68.3% and 10.6% of pistachio producers respectively. The results furthermore showed that time allocation patterns in rural households in Rafsanjan town are not the same among all farmers. Factors such as sex, education, and seasons affect these patterns. In turn, time allocation patterns affect the efficiency of information tools. In other words, the broadcasting time is a key factor for the efficacy of a tool.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Rostami, M.A., Hokmabadi, H., Mostofi, M.R., Gheibi, B.

Evaluation and development of a pistachio nuts transport trailer

(2006) Acta Horticulturae, 726, pp. 569-571. Cited 1 time.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-33846467731&partnerID=40&md5=6d5332e188bde79b6b0cd8202575da25

AFFILIATIONS: Agricultural Research Center of Kerman, Iran;

Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Agricultural Engineering and Techical Research Institute, Tehran, Iran;

Ministry of Agriculture, Tehran, Iran

ABSTRACT: The total area under pistachio crop was reported more than 250,000 Hectares with production 350,000 Tons in the years 2002-2003(). In Iran, unhulled pistachios are traditionally shipped from the orchard to the processing terminal by truck and trailer. Pistachio nuts may stay in the transporting vehicle for several hours. Research results have shown that the temperature of pistachio bulk held in parked transporting vehicle rapidly increases. In long wait periods unhulled pistachio nuts can be damaged. Therefore in this condition pistachio nuts must be held cool. Researchers have shown that agricultural products with high moisture content heat when held in parked transport vehicles and air flow induced by transport or by fans can be used to cool them. In this study an unhulled pistachio mesh sided transport trailer designed and evaluated. This trailer has two floors to reduce pistachio nuts layer compression and to improve air circulation inside pistachio bulk. This decreases bulk temperature in comparison solid sided ordinary trailers. This trailer can carry an equal product with the same cost in comparison with conventional trailers. The trailer was tested after being designed and manufactured and its operation evaluation was acceptable. Temperature of bulk was measured in mesh sided and solid sided trailers for 48 hours. Results indicated that unhulled pistachio nuts that was transported with mesh sided trailer were cooler about 8.08°C in lower floor and 9.33°C in upper floor than those that were transported with solid sided trailer.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Esmaeilizadeh, M., Javanshah, A., Rahemi, M.

Studies of chilling requirement of three pistachio cultivars in Rafsanjan condition

(2006) Acta Horticulturae, 726, pp. 279-281. Cited 3 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-33846470539&partnerID=40&md5=3a40091c2607632cf265ece55f0269d8

AFFILIATIONS: Agriculture Faculty, Rafsanjan Vali- E- Asr University, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Agriculture Faculty, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

ABSTRACT: In order to determine chilling requirement of 3 pistachio cultivars (Ahmadaghaei, Fandoghi-Ghafuri, Chorouk), this research was carried out in laboratory condition during of 2003-2005. In this experiment, the percent of flower bud breaking of mentioned cultivars, which were chilled for 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000, 1200, 1400, and 1600 hours were compared. The design for this experiment was factorial in base of randomized complete block. The results indicate differences between the cultivars regarding the chilling requirement. These results also showed that the chilling requirement of Ahmadaghaei, Fandoghi-Ghafouri and Chorouk cultivars was 1000, 1200 and 1400 hours respectively.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Mirabolfathy, M., Ghadarijani, M.M., Waliyar, F.

Variability in aflatoxicogenic potential and sclorotial production of A. flavus in pistachio in Iran

(2006) Acta Horticulturae, 726, pp. 619-625. Cited 2 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-33846551792&partnerID=40&md5=a373306c547dc3721cbb9d3c8b3afae3

AFFILIATIONS: Plant Pests and Diseases Research Institute, Tehran, Iran;

Iran”S Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran;

International Crop Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru 502 324, India

ABSTRACT: The variability in sclerotial production and toxigenic potential of Aspergillus flavus in pistachio nuts in Iran, was studied by isolating 200 A. flavus isolates from major pistachio growing regions in Rafsanjan, Zarand, Kerman, Noogh, Sirjan and Damghan in Kerman and Semnan provinces: 122 isolates were from pistachio nuts from 51 different storages and terminals; 63 isolates from soil samples collected during July to October at a 15-day s interval in four different locations; and the rest were airborne A. flavus was captured by exposing AFPA media plates for 10 min at 50 cm above ground in pistachio orchards. A pure culture of each isolate was established from a single spore and maintained on PDA and Czapek media. Culture pattern, sporulation and sclerotial production of each isolate at 25±1°C was recorded after 10-15 days: 42% of isolates from soil, 33% isolates from the airborne fungi and 27% isolates from pistachio nuts could produce sclerotia. Rate of sclerotia production varied among various groups of A. flavus isolates, but no significant variation was observed within the group even after successive sub-culturing for 5 months. Based on rate of scleortia production A. flavus isolates were categorized into three groups. From each group seven representative isolates were selected and their toxigenic potential was estimated by inoculating spore suspension (4×106 spores mL-1) to 20 g of pistachio nuts and incubated at 25± 1°C for 8 days. Aflatoxin (Af B1) concentration in the inoculated nuts estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) ranged between 0-5034.3 ppb. High correlation (r = 95%) was observed between sclerotia production and aflatoxin concentration. Isolates that produced less sclerotia had low aflatoxin levels and isolates that produced more sclerotia could produce high amount of aflatoxin. This study showed that not all isolates of A. flavus infecting pistachio produce sclerotia and there is variability in rate of scleortia production, which in turn was directly proportional to the toxigenic potential of an isolate. Further study exploring the relationship between sclerotia production and toxigenic potential could lead to the development of a simple assay for the identification of toxigenic strains of A. flavus.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Sedaghat, R., Suryaprakash, S.

Assessment of the feasibility of contract system for pistachio production and marketing in Iran

(2006) Acta Horticulturae, 726, pp. 705-710. Cited 3 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-33846556767&partnerID=40&md5=91372d5804582b64b5cb0d14d316982e

AFFILIATIONS: Economics and Marketing Division, Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Agricultural Economics Department, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, India

ABSTRACT: Iran ranks first among the pistachio producing countries both in production and exports for the last four decades. The data on productivity clearly shows that it is relatively low compared to other countries and has remained at that level in the last decade. Past experience of different management systems of Iranian agriculture shows that none of the systems, viz. public, private and cooperatives, have been effective. Hence, there is a need for a new managerial system for pistachio orchards for the improvement of this enterprise. One of the very useful and examined ways is to go for contract farming system. At the same time, we should try to choose a competitive system, with an equal chance and right for all the individuals, cooperatives, and may be government agencies and other institutions. Under such a system, the contractors will provide all input, credit and the other needed services to the farmers. At the same time, farmers have to sell their produce to the contractors, based on a signed agreement between them. This will result in improving productivity and also the quality of produce. This can certainly lead to better price realization and improved farm incomes. This paper attempts to define the major problems associated with pistachio industry in Iran and to assess the feasibility of a contract farming system.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Mehrnejad, M.R., Copland, M.J.W.

Behavioral responses of the parasitoid Psyllaephagus pistaciae (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) to host plant volatiles and honeydew

(2006) Entomological Science, 9 (1), pp. 31-37. Cited 17 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-33746870445&doi=10.1111%2fj.1479-8298.2006.00151.x&partnerID=40&md5=80feeb0b321243c8efe263d553baed54

DOI: 10.1111/j.1479-8298.2006.00151.x

AFFILIATIONS: Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Department of Agricultural Sciences, Imperial College at Wye, Ashford, Kent, United Kingdom;

Pistachio Research Institute, PO Box 77175.435, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: The behavioral responses of the parasitoid Psyllaephagus pistaciae, the major biocontrol agent of the common pistachio psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae, to volatiles emanating from its host plant and host honeydew, were examined using a four-arm airflow olfactometer. In addition, the arrestment behavior of this parasitoid on clean and honeydew-treated leaves of the pistachio, Pistacia vera, was monitored. The infested pistachio leaves were the most favored source of the volatile attracting the parasitoids. The parasitoid clearly distinguished and responded to infochemicals emitted by psyllid honeydew but at a lower level than to the volatiles from infested host plants. However, the searching time, locomotory behavior, antennal drumming and ovipositor probing were all affected when they encountered honeydew-contaminated zones on pistachio leaves. These findings suggest that the psyllid honeydew releases kairomones that stimulate the parasitoids to greater searching activity, as well as providing a directional cue. The intensive searching activities in the presence of the volatiles tested were very similar to responses by the parasitoid females when encountering patches treated with psyllid honeydew. Such behavior could retain the parasitoid in a favorable area, thereby increasing the probability of additional host encounters. © 2006 The Entomological Society of Japan.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Mehrnejad, M.R., Copland, M.J.W.

Host-stage selection and oviposition behaviour of Psyllaephagus pistaciae, parasitoid of the common pistachio psylla Agonoscena pistaciae

(2006) Biological Control, 36 (2), pp. 139-146. Cited 15 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-29244434824&doi=10.1016%2fj.biocontrol.2005.07.005&partnerID=40&md5=d6f99fb46377c21ce62052a72f6dc73f

DOI: 10.1016/j.biocontrol.2005.07.005

AFFILIATIONS: Pistachio Research Institute, P.O. Box 77175.435, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Department of Agricultural Sciences, Imperial College at Wye, Wye, Ashford, Kent TN25 5AH, United Kingdom;

Plant Pests and Diseases Research Institute, P.O. Box 19395-1454, Evin, Tehran, Iran

ABSTRACT: Host-stage selection and oviposition behaviour of Psyllaephagus pistaciae Ferrière, a major biocontrol agent of the common pistachio psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt and Lauterer, was investigated in the laboratory. All five psyllid nymphal instars were susceptible to parasitism by P. pistaciae, and were suitable for parasitoid development. In a choice test, however, the parasitoid preferentially attacked fourth instar nymphs. Feeding upon host haemolymph was found a common behaviour by P. pistaciae. All instars of the psyllid were accepted for destructive non-concurrent host feeding resulting in killing about 10% of the hosts. Female wasps allocated a relatively short time for antennal examination of all different psyllid nymphal instars, however, the duration of drilling increased with host instar. Parasitoids’ post-ovipositional behaviour showed that females leave the hosts immediately after oviposition and do not deposited an external marker over the host surface. Both adult body size of male and female progeny and sex ratio of P. pistaciae was unaffected by host instar. © 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Mohammadi, A.H., Haghdel, M., Mohammadi-Moghaddam, M., Banihashemi, Z.

Current status of Verticillium wilt disease of pistachio trees in Iran

(2006) Acta Horticulturae, 726, pp. 631-635.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-33846527963&doi=10.17660%2factahortic.2006.726.108&partnerID=40&md5=20b0abd789a5b84fd6af42e8421ce538

DOI: 10.17660/actahortic.2006.726.108

AFFILIATIONS: Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute, P.O. Box 77175.435, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Pistachio Research Station, Damghan, Iran;

Plant Protection Dept., Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

ABSTRACT: In 1950 the first report of infection of pistachio trees by Verticillium dahliae was recorded in California. Incidence of Verticillium wilt has been reported from Kerman and Qazvin provinces but there was no sufficient information on its importance in Iran. The present study was undertaken to determine the distribution of Verticillium wilt in pistachio growing areas especially in Kerman province. Samples of shoot, soil and weeds adjacent to pistachio trees were collected from Kerman (Rafsanjan, Kerman, Sirjan, Zarand, Shahrebabak, Ravar, Harat and Marvast), Semnan (Damghan) and Khorasan (Birjand, Qaen, Ferdos, Gonabad, Kashmar, Faiz Abad, Naishaboor) provinces. V. dahliae was isolated from pistachio shoots in some areas of Kerman, Semnan and Khorasan provinces. Isolation of V. dahliae from soils of pistachio orchards was limited. Water agar medium containing 35 g L-1 NaCl, ethanol agar and pectate medium had the most efficacy of isolation of V. dahliae. Effort to isolation of V. dahliae from 28 species of weeds in pistachio growing areas was not successful. Isolation of V. dahliae was higher in areas with deficiency of potassium and phosphorus. In these areas, potassium and phosphorus in the soil was less than standard. Isolation of V. dahliae during the year showed that in spring and early summer especially after irrigation, percentage isolation of V. dahliae is higher than other months. Electrical conductivity of infested soil by V. dahliae was 1.2 to 18 dS/m and there was no interaction between distribution of Verticillium wilt and electrical conductivity in collected soils. Also, V. dahliae was present in soil with pH values of 7.3 to 8.6.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Hosseinifard, J., Panahi, B.

The effect of different mineral nutrients on early splitting in pistachio

(2006) Acta Horticulturae, 726, pp. 325-328. Cited 9 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-33846534199&doi=10.17660%2fActaHortic.2006.726.52&partnerID=40&md5=9f9b314bcb6499398523993b1e82df69

DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2006.726.52

AFFILIATIONS: Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Some pistachio nuts rupture their hulls in the orchard prior to harvest and are known as “early splits”. Even though relatively few nuts become early splits, these nuts are va ery important factor, because their kernels are frequently decayed by fungi and contaminated with aflatoxin. Unbalanced nutrition of pistachio may be correlated with early splitting, which caused Aspergillus infection. Previous research has revealed that K, Fe and P deficiency and Zn toxicity are correlated with early split occurrence. Furthermore, a positive and significant correlation between Cu content in leaf with early splitting and a negative, significant correlation between percentage of K and Ca in leaf have been reported. The aim of current research was the evaluation of the effects of spraying Fe nutrient element; combination of Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, and application of buried elements in soil such as K 2So4, Fe, Zn on early splitting percentage, in separate experiments. The results indicated that Fe and its proportions to other nutrient elements were an important factor that affected on early splitting. In addition, a positive and significant correlation between early splitting and Cu content in leaf was observed in different experimental areas. The experimental treatments caused a non-significant increase of K level in leaf. Furthermore, these data were proved that a balanced mineral nutrition plays a key role in remained intact hulls to cover and protect the kernel from invasion by molds.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Mohammadi, A., Panahi, B.

The possibility of irrigation system replacement from surface to sub-surface for mature pistachio trees

(2006) Acta Horticulturae, 726, pp. 485-488.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-33846533652&doi=10.17660%2fActaHortic.2006.726.80&partnerID=40&md5=a921276fcbbbe0b94bf0acbc5be636e3

DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2006.726.80

AFFILIATIONS: Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute, P.O. Box: 77175-435, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Two irrigation systems including the flooding system and sub-surface system were compared on 24 years old pistachio trees, “Ohadi” cultivar. Flooding system is known as a common and native surface irrigation system and sub-surface system is assumed as a modern and new irrigation system by using the porous pipes in the pistachio plantation areas of Iran. This study was carried out in the experimental pistachio station of Kerman for 4 years from 1999 to 2002. This experiment was designed in a randomized complete block design including 7 treatments and 3 replicates with combination of two irrigation intervals (7 &amp; 14 days) and three water rates according to the pan coefficient (20%, 40% and 60% evaporation from surface of class A pan). The sub-surface irrigation system was applied with 6 treatments and the flooding irrigation system tested as control. The results showed that the sub-surface irrigation system was superior in comparison to flooding irrigation system, as 20-50% of water rates were saved, and the higher yield obtained by treated trees. However, it was found that the application of low water rate (2392m 3ha-1) caused some severe water shortage effects on treated pistachio trees, e.g. decline in growth rate, yield and increase of early splits. Finally, it may be concluded that 14 days interval irrigation period is the preferred treatment for pistachio trees. The values of water use efficiency measured in yield were 112 grams for T1 (control), 164, 177 and 227 grams for T3, T5 and T7, respectively of yield when a cubic meter of irrigation was used (14 days interval irrigation).

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Tajabadipour, A., Ghadarijani, M.M., Zadehparizi, R.

Closed pollination for preparing interspecific hybridization of Pistacia genus and determination of a hybrid resistant to gummosis (Phytophthora drechsleri)

(2006) Acta Horticulturae, 726, pp. 637-642.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-33846521224&doi=10.17660%2fActaHortic.2006.726.109&partnerID=40&md5=5f6fbda754283baed74c6227af05eb4b

DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2006.726.109

AFFILIATIONS: Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Gummosis is the most serious pistachio disease in Iran. The damage of gummosis is abundant in infected regions. Unfortunately, control of this disease is very difficult and involves great expense, because the agent of gummosis is soil borne. The use of resistant rootstocks is the most important control method. In order to produce probable resistant hybrid seedling to the mentioned disease, five trees from wild rootstocks, Pistacia atlantica subsp mutica, P. atlantica subsp. atlantica and common rootstocks, Ghazvini, Badami-e-Zarand and Ohadi were selected. Then closed pollinations were done by using impermeable bags and artificial pollination. The obtained hybrid seeds were harvested in favorable harvest time. These seeds were planted in greenhouse. The seedlings in six-month-old and one-year-old were infected with Phytophthora dreshleri (one of the gummosis disease agents). The results indicate that mortality (%) of the combination of male P. atlantica subsp mutica and female Ghazvini was low. This hybrid had the highest resistance in the first stage experiment (six-month-old) in comparison with other combinations. Also the combination of male P. atlantica subsp. atlantica with female Ghazvini had low mortality in six-month-old and one-year-old in comparison with other combinations.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Arjmand, M., Alipour, H., Mirdamadiha, F.

Comparison between aflatoxin contaminations in different stages of pistachio processing

(2006) Acta Horticulturae, 726, pp. 643-646. Cited 2 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-33846509836&doi=10.17660%2fActaHortic.2006.726.110&partnerID=40&md5=ba9c6105773c00b91758a9bfe920dcaf

DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2006.726.110

AFFILIATIONS: Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute, P.O.Box 77175-435, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: In order to compare aflatoxin contamination in different pistachio processing stages, this study was done in a completely randomized design with 6 replicates during 2003-2004 in the Pistachio Research Institute. Treatments were: a) very small screened nuts; b) stained nuts; c) re-hulled pistachio nuts; and d) final pistachio. Aflatoxin contents in samples of pistachio were determinated with HPLC. Analysis of variance revealed that there was a significant difference between different parts of the processing procedures. The mean contamination in re-hulled pistachio nuts, stained nuts, very small screened nuts and final pistachio were 286, 210, 140, 1.04 ppb, respectively. Results indicated that it is necessary not to mix rehulled pistachio nuts with pistachios, which hulled easily on first stage, and separating stained and very small nuts to decrease aflatoxin in final pistachio.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Rad, H.H.

Study on the biology and distribution of Long-horned beetles Calchaenesthes pistacivora n. sp. (Col.: Cerambycidae): A new pistachio and wild pistachio pest in Kerman province

(2006) Acta Horticulturae, 726, pp. 425-430. Cited 6 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-33846508613&doi=10.17660%2fActaHortic.2006.726.68&partnerID=40&md5=4577acf031448f38fad29018aeb98c1b

DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2006.726.68

AFFILIATIONS: Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Three species of Long-horned beetles; Hesperophanes seriaceus, Macrotoma scutellaris and Trichoferus pressi all belonging to family Cerambycidae have been reported from Iran on the cultivated pistachio (Pistacia vera) and wild pistachio (Pistacia mutica) trees. Long-horned beetles were found in the pistachio orchards of Sirjan in April 1999. This insect identified by Holzschuh (Austria) as Calchaenesthes pistacivora (2003) n.sp. (Col.: Cerambicidae: Cerambicina). The biology and distribution of this pest was studied by weekly sampling and using sleeve cages over the pistachio branches, Then one pair of beetles (Male & Female) was released in the cages during 2000-2003. Adult beetles appear in the early April and feed upon pistachio leaves. Eggs are ovoid, 1 mm diameter and two mm length. The female usually laid eggs on the young twigs or on the pruned branches sites. She laid 40- 45 eggs in her life span. The incubation period for eggs lasts two weeks (approximately) in the natural condition. New hatched larvae penetrate inside the branches and make a tunnel there. The tunnel length is about 15 cm (approximately). Larval period takes 16 to 18 months (in the natural condition) and full-developed larvae pupated in the base of tunnels. Pupa period takes 45 days (approximately). Adults remain five to six months inside the tunnels. Then they emerge at early April. Thus, this insect has one generation over two years. The infected branches become dry and so this pest causes heavy damage on pistachio trees. The beetles damages are observed in the wild pistachio (Pistacia. mutica) and Pistacia khinjuk plantation areas in Sirjan City. Hymenopterans parasitoids Myosoma sp. belonging to family Brachonidae is collected from final instars of larvae.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Tajabadipour, A., Panahi, B., Zadehparizi, R.

The effects of rootstock and scion on early splitting and cracked hull of pistachio

(2006) Acta Horticulturae, 726, pp. 193-198. Cited 8 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-33846495010&doi=10.17660%2fActaHortic.2006.726.29&partnerID=40&md5=aad4b94505c56d66560989ca3be3c2ec

DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2006.726.29

AFFILIATIONS: Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Contamination of pistachio fruit with aflatoxin is one of the most important problems that threaten pistachio exportation and food safety. Aflatoxin is one of the products of secondary metabolites in some toxigenc fungi – i.e. Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Early splitting and cracks on pistachio hull are one of the most important factors that lead to contamination of yield to aflatoxin in the orchard. The most important factors that may be affecting early splitting and cracks on pistachio hull are the type of the cultivar and the rootstock. This study was conducted to determine the effects of different rootstocks and scions on aflatoxin production in no.2 Pistachio Research station of Rafsanjan for 2.5 years. The experiment was a split-plot in a randomized complete block design with four rootstocks Pistacia vera cv Badami-e-Riz (Ahli), P. vera var Sarakhs (Sarakhs), P. atlantica subsp. mutica (Mutica) and P. atlantica subsp. atlantica (Atlantica) as sub-factor and three scions (Ohadi, Kalleh-Ghuchi and Ahmadaghaei) as main factor, replicated four times. Samplings were done on early split pistachios with soft and smooth hulls, shriveled and dry hulls, and irregular cracked pistachios with soft and smooth hulls, shriveled and dry hulls. Among the scions, the number of fruits per cluster was the highest in Ohadi. The percentages of early splitted pistachios with either soft and smooth hulls or shriveled and dry hulls were higher in Baneh and Atlantica rootstocks than in Ahli. The percentage of early splitting in Ahli scion was lower than Kalleh-Ghuchi scion. The percentage of cracks on pistachio hull in grafted scions on Ahli rootstock was the lowest, but showed no significant differences with other rootstocks. Kalleh-Ghuchi scion showed the lowest percentage of cracks on pistachio hull.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Moghaddam, M.M., Goltapeh, E.M., Hokmabadi, H., Haghdel, M., Mortazavi, A.M.

Evaluation of susceptibility of pistachio cultivars to aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin B1 production

(2006) Acta Horticulturae, 726, pp. 655-658. Cited 8 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-33846486804&doi=10.17660%2fActaHortic.2006.726.113&partnerID=40&md5=e4f0d23deb9fd44f8af2a54e1954d7a0

DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2006.726.113

AFFILIATIONS: Pistachio Research Station, Damghan, Iran;

Dept. of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran, Iran;

Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: In order to evaluate the susceptibility of pistachio cultivars to Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxin B1 production, ten different cultivars of pistachio, namely, Akbari, Kalleh-Ghuchi, Ohadi, Ahmadaghaei, Kalleh-Bozi, Kalkhandan, Shahpasand, FAS-13-73, Abbasali and Fakhri were collected from different parts of pistachio belt i.e. Rafsanjan, Damghan and Ghazvin in Iran. One isolate of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus was used in this research. This isolate of A. flavus could produce aflatoxin B1 and B2 but could not produce aflatoxin G1 and G 2. In order to investigate the susceptibility of pistachio cultivars to A. flavus growth and aflatoxin B1 production, 20g lots of pistachio kernels of tested cultivars were taken in 3 replications (completely randomized design). Kernels were surface sterilized and then inoculated with 1mL spore suspension (2 × 106 spores/mL) of A. flavus. 8 days after inoculation, growth rate and colonization of A. flavus on pistachio kernels were measured. Also, aflatoxin content of samples was extracted by BF method and estimated by TLC and densitometer. The results of this research indicated that among different cultivars Akbari had the least susceptibility to the fungus growth rate. The degree of aflatoxin production varied, among different cultivars. It is observed that Kalkhandan and Fakhri had the least whereas Shahpasand and Abbasali had the greatest amount of aflatoxin B 1 production.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Kermani, M.M., Salehi, F.

Determination of pistachio crop evapotranspiratation (ETC)

(2006) Acta Horticulturae, 726, pp. 441-447. Cited 3 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-33846544416&doi=10.17660%2factahortic.2006.726.71&partnerID=40&md5=ee8d28c10a045b2188b22a976e5df516

DOI: 10.17660/actahortic.2006.726.71

AFFILIATIONS: Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute (IPRI), P.O. Box 77175/435, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: In this study, by using of a concrete lysimeter (with the dimension of 9 x 6 m, and average depth of 3.4 m with an overall slope of 2%), evapotranspiration (ETC) of pistachio plant (Pistacia vera L.) from planting to 10 years of age was determined. The procedure in each irrigation interval was done by measuring of applied water, and subtracting daily measured drainage water: to get crop water usage in each interval. At the end of the first phase of the experiment (Cultivation to crop production initiation), the amount of needed water and crop coefficient (KC) in each month of the year was determined. It should be mentioned that KC values were obtained by dividing the ET in each interval by ETO (Obtained from a lawn lysimeter in another experiment in the same time near the pistachio lysimeter).

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Kamiab, F., Vesvaei, A., Panahi, B.

Male performance in Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.)

(2006) Acta Horticulturae, 726, pp. 133-138. Cited 3 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-33846486811&doi=10.17660%2fActaHortic.2006.726.20&partnerID=40&md5=96bf384f06e9ea6732c33c03966277ef

DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2006.726.20

AFFILIATIONS: University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran;

Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: This research was performed in order to select male performance with good criteria in the Pistachio Research Institute. The study was conducted on 10 genotype until flowering time, pollen quantity and pollen quality were evaluated. The results indicated that flowering times P1, P2 male genotypes were simultaneous with Kallehghochi female genotype; P3, P4, P5 male genotypes with female Ahmad Aghaii genotype; P6 and P7 male genotypes with femal Ohadi genotype and P8, P9, P10 male genotypes with femal Akbari genotype. Inflorescence density showed big differences between male genotypes, ranging from 4.5g for P6 to 1.66 g for P8, the average being 3.138g. The amount of pollen per inflorescence also showed big differences, ranging from 0.071 g for P2 and 0.267g for P5, the average being 0.168g. Inflorescence density and pollen per in florescence are not related and there are clones with a good inflorescence density and a poor amount of pollen per inflorescence and vice versa. In order to determine the percentages of pollen germination, a medium consisted of sucrose, agar and boric acid was used. The results of percentages of germinated pollen showed significant differences between experimental samples: ranging from 30% for P3 and P4 to 85% for P10, the average was 56%. Medium culture without boric acid was lower in compare to other treatment. The viability of pollen collected from cutting inflorescences kept in water bottle was higher than dried inflorescences maintained at room condition.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Rostami, M.A., Mirdamadiha, F., Golshan, A.

Evaluation and comparison of the common pistachio dryers in Kerman province

(2006) Acta Horticulturae, 726, pp. 595-598.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-33846483727&doi=10.17660%2fActaHortic.2006.726.101&partnerID=40&md5=34ce9b810af1cb6a0feafc89b22d188e

DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2006.726.101

AFFILIATIONS: Agricultural Research Center of Kerman, Kerman, Iran;

Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: In this study, the effect of four different type of dryers (batch wagon dryer, continuous vertical dryer, batch cylindrical vertical dryer and continuous cylindrical vertical dryer) with two levels of moisture content (m.c.) in pistachio nuts (4-6% and 10-12% db) on fuel consumption, change in splitting, drying uniformity, damage, storage life, texture, flavor, rancidity and color of pistachio kernel were studied and compared to sun drying. It was found that drying to moisture content of 4-6% in continuous vertical dryer has maximum negative effect on the splitting of pistachio nuts. Splitting number decreased in this dryer. Sun drying increased nut splitting and the maximum damage rate was in wagon dryer. Results indicated that sun drying had maximum uniformity and that the cylindrical vertical dryer could not dry pistachio nuts uniformly, because pistachio nuts had no movement in this dryer. Drying curves were drawn for all of the dryers. By these curves, we can draw the drying velocity and the fuel consumption for each time. These curves indicated that to decrease 1% m.c. of pistachio nuts at three hours interval we need 8.5, 15.2 and 38.5 minutes respectively.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Hokmabadi, H., Arzani, K., Gheibi, B., Hadavi, F.

Growth and leaf chemical composition of three pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) rootstock seedlings in response to boron excess in irrigation water

(2006) Acta Horticulturae, 726, pp. 363-366. Cited 1 time.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-33846557994&doi=10.17660%2fActaHortic.2006.726.58&partnerID=40&md5=4a05dbc7212b821b1657624bf1c2f5e2

DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2006.726.58

AFFILIATIONS: Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute, P.O.Box:77175-435, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modarres University (TMU), P.O.Box 14155-336, Tehran, Iran;

Department of Pistachio Affairs, Ministry of Agriculture, 2nd Building, Taleghani Ave., Tehran, Iran

ABSTRACT: In order to determine the effects boron excess in irrigation water on relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate on a leaf weight basis (NAR) and leaf weight ratio (LWR) of pistachio, three pistachio rootstocks including Badami-e-Zarand, Sarakhs and Ghazvini were used. Rootstocks were grown in soil in the 8 liter polyethylene pots in the controlled greenhouses at Tarbiat Modarres University (TMU), Iran. Treatments were 0, 20 and 40 mg.L-1 boron in irrigation water. Treatments were applied to one-year-old pistachio rootstock seedlings in three days intervals with irrigation water. Some of the plants were randomly selected and destructively harvested before applying treatments (day 0) and 30 and 60 days after treatments started (DATS). Growth and physiological characters such as number of leaves, leaf area, plant height, root length, stem fresh and dry weight, proline accumulation in the leaf and leaf, stem and root carbon isotope discrimination were measured. Results indicated that boron treatments did not show any significant effect on growth rate and proline accumulation after two months exposure to the treatments, but results showed that by increasing boron concentration in irrigation water in 60 DATS, Δ in the leaves and roots decreased but there was no change in Δ of stems.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Hosseinifard, J., Salehi, M.H., Mohammadi, J., Heydari, M.

Groundwater quality in pistachio growing area of Rafsanjan, Iran

(2006) Acta Horticulturae, 726, pp. 217-220. Cited 1 time.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-33846511095&doi=10.17660%2fActaHortic.2006.726.34&partnerID=40&md5=f94089b6e227ec21190c6d60c8d9f936

DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2006.726.34

AFFILIATIONS: Iranian Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Soil Science Dept., College of Agriculture, Shahrekord University, P.O. Box 115, Shahrekord, Iran

ABSTRACT: Irrigation has ever been an important factor in agricultural development. Groundwater is the main source for irrigation in pistachio growing areas of Iran. The use of poor quality groundwater can increase physical and chemical problems and plague reducing crop yields, determining the quality of these waters is necessary for proper planning of sustainable management in pistachio orchards. In this study, one thousand samples were collected to determine EC, pH, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, HCO 3-, SAR and Boron concentration in Rafsanjan, the largest pistachio growing area in Iran. Results indicated that the mean values for EC, pH, SAR, Cl-, HCO3-, Ca/Mg and Boron concentration were 6.1dSm-1, 7.5, 11.3, 52.3 meqL-1, 3.5 meqL-1, 0.9 and 4.2 mg L-1 in the study area, respectively. About eighty percent of the samples had EC&lt;8 dSm-1 and SAR&lt;13. This means that groundwater had desirable quality according to EC and SAR values in most of the study area. Although the mean values of Boron concentration in most of the area was lower than the reported critical level, Kabootarkhan region had less Boron concentration than the others. Most of the variables showed a significant difference (P&lt;0.05) between different regions. A significant negative correlation was observed between EC and depth of water table in Anar and Nough regions. Also, correlation between EC and Boron concentration in these regions was positively significant (P&lt;0.01). Based on the results obtained, the groundwater quality of Kabootarkhan is better than other regions probably due to the hydrology and geomorphology.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Ardakani, A.Sh., Shahedi, M., Kabir, Gh.

Optimizing of the process of pistachio butter production

(2006) Acta Horticulturae, 726, pp. 565-568. Cited 4 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-33846488469&doi=10.17660%2fActaHortic.2006.726.94&partnerID=40&md5=d128503fc19dba109445d3a77ad186ea

DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2006.726.94

AFFILIATIONS: Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute, P.O.Box 77175/435, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Food Science and Technology Department, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Pistachio butter (a paste of mashed pistachio and sugar) is one of the foodstuffs containing a thick oily pistachio paste in the formulation. The final product is highly nutritious. Organoleptic characteristics of pistachio butter depend on its formula and method of manufacturing. The most important factor affecting the quality of pistachio butter, be it from flavor, appearance and texture point of view, is oil separation in the product; therefore, leakage of oil from pistachio butter is an undesirable characteristic. In this investigation, the effect of two emulsifiers (lecithin and mono-di glycerides) in tree levels (0.0, 1.0 and 2.0%) on the oil leakage and the effect of one antioxidant (BHT) in tree levels (0.00, 0.01 and 0.02%) on the quality of pistachio butter were studied. Samples were stored at room temperature (25°C) for four months and then the volume of oil, which was separated, was measured by a measuring cylinder (10 mL volume; 1.3 cm in diameter). The experiment had a completely randomized design and the comparison between the means was done via Duncan’s multiple range test (5% level). The results showed that the treatments containing 2% lecithin and 2% mono- di glycerides had the least leakage of oil. Also, the results showed that adding BHT antioxidant had a significant effect on peroxide value and shelf life of pistachio butter; but there was no significant effect between treatments.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Hejri, L.A., Azar, M., Javanshah, A.

Isolation of saprophytic yeasts from pistachio fruits and leaves

(2006) Acta Horticulturae, 726, pp. 599-604.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-33846500742&doi=10.17660%2fActaHortic.2006.726.102&partnerID=40&md5=0cddbaf912eea8ba83f88296f506c949

DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2006.726.102

AFFILIATIONS: University of Medical Sciences, College of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti, Iran;

Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: The Pistachio nut (Pistachia vera L.) is one of the favourite tree nuts of the world. Aflatoxins are toxic as well as carcinogenic compounds produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus. A. flavus is a pathogen infecting pistachios, which have been damaged by insects, animals, early splits and mechanical harvest. Infection of A. flavus will result in rapid accumulation of aflatoxin in the harvested nuts under conditions of warm temperature and high humidity. Contamination can occur in the field, at harvest, during post-harvest operations and in storage. With increasing knowledge and awareness of aflatoxins as a potent source of health hazards, a great deal of effort has been made to completely eliminate the toxin or reduce its content in food to significantly lower levels. Since removing aflatoxin from pistachios once they are present is impractical and expensive, it is necessary to prevent formation of aflatoxin through biological control of A. flavus. Aflatoxin production can be inhibited by some yeast. In a research being conducted in Iranian pistachio research institute (IPRI) the potential of yeasts as effective biocontrol agent against A. flavus is being investigated. To achieve this goal, the first step is; Isolation and Identification of yeasts present on the surface of pistachio leaves and fruits. For isolation of yeasts, samples from 2 different varieties were collected. Pistachio fruits and leaves were separately submerged in water containing Tween 80. Suspension was spread on NYDA plates and incubated at 28°C. Selected yeast colonies were streaked on NYDA and Malt Extract plates for single colony isolation. Microscopic observation, sugar fermentation and gas production was investigated. Candida, Rhodotorula and Cryptococcus species were identified.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Moazenpour, M., Farshad, A., Abkar, A.A.

Use of remote sensing (RS) in pistachio yield estimation

(2006) Acta Horticulturae, 726, pp. 465-470.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-33846517642&doi=10.17660%2factahortic.2006.726.76&partnerID=40&md5=e2950c8a0e3ada4d0f21e0b6b211f056

DOI: 10.17660/actahortic.2006.726.76

AFFILIATIONS: Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran;

International Institute for Geoinformation Science and Earth Observation, 7500 AA Enschede, Netherlands;

Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Research Institute, Tehran, Iran

ABSTRACT: In this study, TERRA-ASTER images were used. At the first, pixel(s), with sufficient density were identified by means of colour composition, multi-spectral classification, PC, NDVI and other image processing methods. Study area was Kabootarkhan, a town near Rafsanjan in Kerman Province. Good crop performance “Yield” was expressed with field measurement of an index, named “Index of Leaf Area (ILA)” and as “Crop Variable” of selected pixels. “Yield” and “ILA” index were considered as the dependent variables for multivariate analysis with spectral reflectance and soil properties as independent variables. A data set with sufficient variation in the dependent and independent variables was compiled. It was expected that the variation could be explained by the spectral and soil variables. Furthermore investigated, how well “ILA” index variable is related to crop productivity. Can a “Yield” index be defined from “ILA” index? The results showed that the variability in the pistachio yield in the study area, accepted to be for 94.3 percent (adjusted R2 = 94.3) dependent on three main independent variable attributes: “Crop”, “Soil”, and “Other” parameters related to crop yield and production.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Salehi, F., Abosaedi, D., Aliasgharzadeh, N.

Study on the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi populations in pistachio orchards of Kerman province

(2006) Acta Horticulturae, 726, pp. 227-230. Cited 1 time.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-33846515225&doi=10.17660%2fActaHortic.2006.726.36&partnerID=40&md5=56aea38b74bb7779dd6041f872118e07

DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2006.726.36

AFFILIATIONS: Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute, P.O. Box: 77175-435, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Department of Plant Protection, Kerman Jihad-Agriculture Organization, Kerman, Iran;

Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, 51664 Tabriz, Iran

ABSTRACT: Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (VAMF) are able to make a symbiotic relationship with many plants and cause optimum plant growth by increasing absorption of some nutritional elements. In this study, the spore population of VAMF in the rhizosphere soil of pistachio trees and the percentage of mycorrhizal root colonization have been surveyed during 1995-1998 in pistachio orchards of Rafsanjan, Zarand, Sirjan and Shahr-e-Babak in Kerman province. Spores of VAMF were extracted and counted in 100 grams of soil samples by wetsieving followed by sucrose centrifugation. Also, root samples were cleaned and stained for evaluation of mycorrhizal root colonization using the non-systemic root scaning procedure. Results showed that VAMF have a symbiotic relationships with roots of Pistacia vera L. in the majority of investigated pistachio production areas. Glomus fasciculatum was observed in Kerman and Zarand orchards and Glomus spp. were the dominant species in all pistachio orchards of Kerman province. For the first time, two VAMF species, Gigaspora decipiens and Glomus gerdemanni were reported from the soils of this area. Spore population was detected to be high in those areas with shorter irrigation intervals, low salinity and moderate climatic condition. The percentage of root colonization of different pistachio rootstocks (P. khinjuk, P. mutica, P. vera) with different degrees of incidence (C1- C5) were determined in this study. Chemical analysis of soil samples showed that phosphorus concentration has a negative relationship with VAMF population, i.e. increasing phosphorus in soil is followed by decreasing VAMF population.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Reza Mehrnejad, M., Copland, M.J.W.

Diapause strategy in the parasitoid Psyllaephagus pistaciae

(2005) Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 116 (2), pp. 109-114. Cited 14 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-27744516276&doi=10.1111%2fj.1570-7458.2005.00315.x&partnerID=40&md5=a3fa434f54fa59794870710de3a1c0f1

DOI: 10.1111/j.1570-7458.2005.00315.x

AFFILIATIONS: Pistachio Research Institute, PO Box 77175.435, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Department of Agricultural Sciences, Imperial College at Wye, Wye, Ashford, Kent, TN25 5AH, United Kingdom;

Horticultural Research and Development Center, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 430 B. Gouin, St-Jean-sur-Richelieu, J3B 3E6, Québec, Canada

ABSTRACT: The processes involved in the induction and termination of diapause in the parasitoid Psyllaephagus pistaciae Ferrière (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) were investigated under controlled laboratory conditions. Results indicated that the parasitoid P. pistaciae is able to overwinter successfully as a pupa within the mummified psyllid host Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt and Lauterer (Homoptera: Psylloidea), and the parasitoid clearly responded to a short photoperiod by entering diapause. The incidence of diapause increased significantly with decreasing temperature, indicating the existence of an interaction between low temperature and short-day photoperiod that resulted in a 100% diapause. However, low temperature alone partly stimulated P. pistaciae to enter diapause. The incidence of diapause was likely to be independent from psyllid nymphal instar and the condition of its mother. This investigation showed that the termination of diapause in the overwintering parasitoid pupae and the duration of diapause completion or adult emergence is photoperiod independent, but dependent on temperature. However, chilling treatment was found to be unnecessary for diapause termination in P. pistaciae, although it decreased the duration of diapause maturation. The positive responses of parasitoids to environmental factors appears to act as a basic strategy to induce diapause in the parasitoid P. pistaciae against extreme climatic conditions. © 2005 The Netherlands Entomological Society.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Mehrnejad, M.R., Copland, M.J.W.

The seasonal forms and reproductive potential of the common pistachio psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae (Hem., Psylloidea)

(2005) Journal of Applied Entomology, 129 (6), pp. 342-346. Cited 13 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-23044516498&doi=10.1111%2fj.1439-0418.2005.00974.x&partnerID=40&md5=2a9cee11934d03a56efc98e78582c708

DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0418.2005.00974.x

AFFILIATIONS: Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Department of Agricultural Sciences, Imperial College at Wye, Ashford, Kent, United Kingdom;

Plant Pests and Diseases Research Institute, P.O. Box 19395-1454, Evin, Tehran, Iran

ABSTRACT: Two distinct seasonal forms were found for the common pistachio psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae, the most serious insect pest of cultivated pistachio trees, Pistacia vera in Iran. The two forms are different morphologically as well as biologically. The summer form is of light colour and readily mates and starts egg laying 1-2 days after emergence, whereas, the winter form is larger, generally darker and in reproductive diapause. The first form is observed under long photoperiod, while the second form is induced under a combination of short photoperiod and low temperature. The combination of long photoperiod and warm temperature enhanced post-emergence ovarian development in the winter form, showing a close inverse correlation between pre-oviposition period and increasing temperatures. Both forms of A. pistaciae are adapted to a wide temperature range of 20-30°C for reproduction, and the fecundity of psyllid adults of either summer- or winter forms was found to be very high under experimental conditions. © 2005 Blackwell Verlag.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Mehrnejad, M.R., Emami, S.Y.

Parasitoids associated with the common pistachio psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae, in Iran

(2005) Biological Control, 32 (3), pp. 385-390. Cited 20 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-13744261116&doi=10.1016%2fj.biocontrol.2004.12.004&partnerID=40&md5=ca9af5c0ef74ef96d8e03dc5c2bfd9fb

DOI: 10.1016/j.biocontrol.2004.12.004

AFFILIATIONS: Pistachio Research Institute, P.O. Box 77175.435, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Hort. R. and D. Center, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 430 Boul. Gouin, St. Jean-sur-Richelieu, Que. J3B 3E6, Canada

ABSTRACT: The parasitoids associated with the common pistachio psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt and Lauterer, were investigated at three pistachio plantations in Rafsanjan, Iran. Of the 6504 wasps emerging from mummified psyllids, 46% were the primary parasitoid Psyllaephagus pistaciae Ferrière, and the remaining 54% represented six species of hymenopterous hyperparasitoids, including Chartocerus kurdjumovi (Nikol’skaja), Marietta picta (André), Pachyneuron aphidis (Bouché), Pachyneuron muscarum (Linnaeus), Psyllaphycus diaphorinae (Hayat), and Syrphophagus aphidivorus (Mayr). Lysiphlebus fabarum Marshall, the parasitoid of Aphis gossypii Glover and Aphis craccivora Koch present on weeds, was found to be an alternative host for three major hyperparasitoids of A. pistaciae. The most abundant hyperparasitoid was S. aphidivorus, appearing during the growing season in all trial locations on psyllids and aphids in pistachio orchards. The weed-infesting aphids, along with their primary parasitoid, can act as a reservoir of A. pistaciae secondary parasitoids. Therefore, parasitized aphids allow populations of secondary parasitoids to increase and consequently to apply higher pressure on P. pistaciae. We detected that two primary parasitoid species, including P. pistaciae and L. fabarum, attacking different species of hosts interact indirectly through shared secondary parasitism. It is suggested that the community structure of A. pistaciae may be influenced by apparent competition, although more work is needed to provide firm evidence. © 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Mehrnejad, M.R., Jalali, M.A.

Life history parameters of the coccinellid beetle, Oenopia conglobata contaminata, an important predator of the common pistachio psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae (Hemiptera: Psylloidea)

(2004) Biocontrol Science and Technology, 14 (7), pp. 701-711. Cited 27 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-3142530862&doi=10.1080%2f09583150410001682377&partnerID=40&md5=8149d0c0f2f28193cef1ada078203859

DOI: 10.1080/09583150410001682377

AFFILIATIONS: Pistachio Research Institute, P.O. Box 77175.435, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Plant Protection Department, College of Agriculture, University of Shiraz, Iran;

Hort. R. and D. Center, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, St-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Que. J3B 3E6, Canada

ABSTRACT: The predatory beetle, Oenopia conglobata contaminata, is associated with the common pistachio psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae, the major pistachio pest in Iran. Successful development and reproduction on both A. pistaciae and Aphis gossypii (the major weed aphid in the pistachio orchards) indicated they were suitable prey for O. conglobata contaminata. Under ample prey supply, larval development on A. pistaciae was shorter and mortality was lower compared to those reared on A. gossypii. Furthermore, this ladybird attacks and destroys a large number of psyllid nymphs during the whole of its larval period (620±17 fourth stage nymphs) and also in its adult stage (191±7.5 4th stage nymphs daily). The optimum temperature for development was 30°C, the theoretical threshold for development was 13°C and thermal requirements from egg to adult was estimated as 196 degree-days (°D). Fecundity for the first 21 days of adult life was 387 and 355 eggs when females fed on A. pistaciae and A. gossypii nymphs, respectively. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm) at 27.5°C was 0.19 and 0.18 when ladybirds were fed on psyllid and aphid nymphs, respectively. In a laboratory choice experiment, the adult ladybirds showed a strong preference for A. pistaciae compared to A. gossypii. This was in agreement with our field observation that O. conglobata contaminata is almost always found on psyllid colonies, even when aphids were plentiful on weeds in the pistachio orchards. The influence of the predator on psyllid seasonal population under natural condition was not studied in this investigation and this subject must be measured in subsequent trials.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Mehrnejad, M.R.

The influence of host species on some biological and behavioural aspects of Dibrachys boarmiae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), parasitoid of Kermania pistaciella (Lepidoptera: Tineidae)

(2003) Biocontrol Science and Technology, 13 (2), pp. 219-229. Cited 9 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0037363237&doi=10.1080%2f0958315021000073484&partnerID=40&md5=e44831f540b6a0ba50478bb1e1f609d7

DOI: 10.1080/0958315021000073484

AFFILIATIONS: Pistachio Research Institute, P. O. Box 77175.435, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Dibrachys boarmiae was recently found as a parasitoid of the pistachio twig borer moth, Kermania pistaciella, an important pistachio pest in Iran. Several biological and behavioural aspects of the wasp were studied under controlled conditions using three different lepidopterous host species, K. pistaciella, Sitotroga cerealella and Galleria mellonella. Development time from egg to adult decreases from 54 days at 15°C to 12.6 days at 32.5°C. The thermal constant was estimated 270°D, and the lower development threshold was at 9.9°C. Longevity of females that had the opportunity to oviposit and access to food (honey) was on average 23 days, and 134 offspring were produced during 13 days of oviposition. Ninety percent of ovipositions occur during the first 10 days of the parasitoid’s life, although no pre-oviposition period was found. If females were deprived of food, longevity as well as fecundity, were drastically reduced to 8 days and only 79 offspring respectively. Females were able to mate immediately after emergence and the sex ratio of the progeny was strongly female biased on all examined hosts, especially on the largest host G. mellonella (0.08 male). When females were kept with a male throughout their life, the total number of progeny decreased to 92 wasps on average but the sex ratio was unaffected. The parasitoid significantly preferred to attack the pre-pupal stage, and this influenced the size of clutches allocated to different host stages. The parasitoid laid larger clutches on bigger hosts.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Article

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Farivar-Mehin, H.

The important beetle pests of the pistachio trees in Iran

(2002) Acta Horticulturae, 591, pp. 549-552. Cited 1 time.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84879608990&doi=10.17660%2fActaHortic.2002.591.85&partnerID=40&md5=5c2a133a1f3895acce1ad182b801788a

DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2002.591.85

AFFILIATIONS: Pistachio Research Institute, P. O. Box 77175.435, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: The beetle insects are among the important pests of the pistachio trees in Iran. Three species of the beetle belonging to families Scolytidae, Buprestidae and Curculionidae (Coleoptera), cause considerable damage to pistachio trees, Pistacia vera L. The pistachio twig borer beetle, Hylesinus vestitus Mulsant & Rey (Col.: Scolytidae) is known as an injurious insect. It is distributed throughout the pistachio growing areas of the country. The adult beetles appear in pistachio orchards from late March, and attack pistachio buds. The beetles feed upon tree buds and bore a short cave (channel) in twigs (about 4-5 cm deep) just beneath the buds. This species almost always attacks healthy trees for feeding, during the spring and summer, and therefore the beetle destroys the buds (either fruit or vegetative buds). Usually the beetle attacks a single bud for the whole spring and summer period, but sometimes each beetle causes damage to 2-3 buds too. The beetles stay inside the cave until early October and then emerge to seek ovipositing sites. They choose the damaged, pruned or dead pistachio twigs, branches and trunks either inside or outside the pistachio orchards for ovipositing. This species produce one generation per year. The most effective control technique is collecting and removing all of the damaged and dead pistachio twigs and branches, and then burning them to prevent proper oviposition sites for adults. The pistachio root beetle, Capnodis cariosa hauseri Ob. (Col.: Buprestidae), is usually assumed to be a pest of old pistachio trees but it attacks the young trees as well. This insect was distributed in many pistachio growing regions of Iran and causes heavy damage to pistachio trees, particularly when the infection is accompanied by gummosis. The pistachio root beetle usually emerges in the early spring and lays eggs on the pistachio trunk as well as around the pistachio collar. However, it was found that a part of the beetle population appears in the early autumn, and may overwinter and then reproduce in the following spring. The newly hatched larvae bore into the trunk close to the collar and then continue towards the roots. It causes general weakness in the pistachio trees and may even kill the infected trees. The pistachio weevil, Polydrosus davatchii Hoffman (Col.: Curculionidae), is found in some pistachio growing areas of the Kerman province. The adult weevils appear in the pistachio orchards in early spring when the flowering buds start to open. The beetles feed upon and destroy several buds, flowering clusters and tiny young fruits; therefore the weevil damage is considerable in the contaminated areas. The pistachio weevil produces just one generation per year in pistachio orchards, and the beetle larvae are not assumed to be a pistachio pest.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Alipour, H., Azghandi, A.V., Esmailpour, A.

Introducing suitable pollinizers for ‘Ahmad-Aghaii’ pistachio (an Iranian commercial cultivar)

(2002) Acta Horticulturae, 591, pp. 371-375. Cited 1 time.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-67949084309&doi=10.17660%2fActaHortic.2002.591.57&partnerID=40&md5=d2aa05f1c8b9ffd96e49de2466e1eedc

DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2002.591.57

AFFILIATIONS: Pistachio Research Institute, P. O. Box 77175-435, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: In order to find the most suitable pollinators for the ‘Ahmad-Aghaii’ pistachio cultivar, this experiment was conducted in the Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran, during 1999-2000. Six male phenotypes, which had appropriate flowering overlap with ‘Ahmad-Aghaii’, were selected for controlled pollination, originally from the progenies of seed-raised trees including ‘Jandaghi’ (R21), ‘Harati’ (R22), ‘Kalleh-Ghochi’ (R23), ‘Hassan-Zadeh’ (R25), ‘Ghazvini’ (R26) and P. khinjuk. Six limbs (twigs), each having 3 to 5 flowering buds, were chosen on each of 5 ‘Ahmad-Aghaii’ trees (as replication) to be pollinated with the above-mentioned pollen sources and one limb to be open-pollinated. Before blooming, chosen limbs on the female trees were isolated and covered using pollen impermeable cloth bags. At blooming time, these bags were removed for a few minutes and two male inflorescences were tied on each limb close to the female inflorescence and covered with the cloth bag again. More pollen from each of the pollen sources was injected into the bags using syringes. Fruit-set, blank nuts, unsplit nuts, nut size (nuts per ounce) and kernel weight were recorded at the time of harvesting. Data were analysed using a Randomized Complete Block Design. Results show that pollination using pollens of R22 and R26 cultivars had the highest fruit-set percentages (9.99%), while pollination using pollens of P. khinjuk gave the lowest fruit-set (3.68%). The open-pollinated treatment produced more split nuts and less blank nuts compared to the other pollen sources. Pollens of R22 and R26 types gave the highest fruit-set and kernel weights, but showed no significant differences in other recorded parameters. Therefore, these two male types were determined as the most suitable pollinators for ‘Ahmad-Aghaii’.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Mehrnejad, M.R.

Bionomics of the common pistachio psylla, Agonoscena Pistaciae, in Iran

(2002) Acta Horticulturae, 591, pp. 535-539. Cited 13 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-3142531378&doi=10.17660%2fActaHortic.2002.591.82&partnerID=40&md5=d631d7de1cef818c803efa3fbba1dc07

DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2002.591.82

AFFILIATIONS: Pistachio Research Institute, P. O. Box 77175.435, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: The common pistachio psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt and Lauterer (Hemiptera: Psylloidea), is the key pest of cultivated pistachio trees, Pistacia vera (L.), and is distributed throughout all the pistachio-producing regions in Iran. This study focused on various features of the pest and was carried out both in the laboratory and the field under natural conditions. It was found that the common pistachio psylla has two seasonal forms. Clear morphological and physiological differences between the adult psyllid morphs were observed. However, both temperature and photoperiod strongly influenced diapause induction and termination in this insect. The optimum constant temperature for development was 30°C, however, the psyllid nymphs developed quickly, between 25 and 32.5°C. Both summer- and winter-forms of A. pistaciae are adapted to a wide temperature range for reproduction. Egg laying only started after mating and oviposition continued until death. This study indicated the important role of male psyllids in progeny production in the common pistachio psylla. In addition, several life-cycle parameters including thermal thresholds and constant, actual fecundity and intrinsic rate of natural increase for the psyllid were determined. In the Kerman province, the winterform adult psyllids first emerged in early October and continued throughout the autumn until early December, emigrating towards the overwintering sites. Afterwards, the winterforms appear in the pistachio orchards in the late winter and early spring and attack pistachio trees, feed on swollen buds, young leaves and shoots and establish the summerform generation. Most first generation adult psyllids appeared around early May, when the founders’ winter-form psyllid was still active on the pistachio trees. The pest population rapidly increases from early spring to late autumn. However, the presence of high population densities of psyllid nymphs and adults causes significant economic losses, particularly from the late spring to nearly the end of summer. The control of this pest relies almost exclusively on pesticides. However, the parasitoid wasp, Psyllaephagus pistaciae Ferrière, and the predatory ladybird, Oenopia conglobata (Linnaeaus), are the major biocontrol agents for this insect. The effects of other potential predators such as lacewing, ladybirds, mites, spiders and anthocorid bugs have not yet been fully investigated, but it is thought that these natural enemies all play a significant role in the control of the common pistachio psylla, particularly in the spring and autumn.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Mehrnejad, M.R.

The natural parasitism ratio of the pistachio twig borer moth, Kermania Pistaciella, in Iran

(2002) Acta Horticulturae, 591, pp. 541-544. Cited 10 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0242722267&doi=10.17660%2fActaHortic.2002.591.83&partnerID=40&md5=3f444c4cfacd80ed2c29f7d949e145d5

DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2002.591.83

AFFILIATIONS: Pistachio Research Institute, P. O. Box 77175.435, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: The pistachio twig borer is widely distributed in the pistachio plantation areas of Iran, and is known as an important pistachio pest. Several parasitoid wasps attack the eggs, larvae and pupae of this insect and the wasp progenies emerge from host cocoons. The natural parasitism ratio of this pest was studied in five different pistachio growing areas of Rafsanjan in three years. Sampling was carried out from 10 March to 20 April once a week, and the moth cocoons were collected from pistachio twigs. The cocoons were kept separately in small vials (10 ml), then the emerged insects, either moths or wasps, were recorded. This study was conducted in 1995, 1999 and 2000, when the number of cocoons studied was 3452, 3722 and 6191 and the natural parasitism was 42.6%, 46.2% and 47.7%, respectively. This study showed an 8% (mean) mortality among the moth cocoons which means no wasp or moth emerged. Therefore, only about 46% (mean) of moth progenies developed to adult. Furthermore, it was found that ants and spiders also attack moth cocoons and feed upon the moth larvae and pupae. However, these biocontrol agents are active in the pistachio orchards only where they are not subjected to heavy spray application. The available information shows that this insect was considered a minor pest before 1970. Chemicals (e.g. insecticides) were heavily applied in the pistachio orchards especially in late winter and early spring during the 1970s and 1980s, and subsequently this insect has become a major pest. It is proposed that under a pest management programme, spraying applications should be phased out in the pistachio orchards, allowing parasitoid populations to rise and resulting in effective improvement in control by the parasitoids.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Ghorbani, A.M., Azghandi, A.V., Sheibani, A., Esmailpour, A.

Effects of altering culture medium on rooting of pistachio micro-shoots (Pistacia Vera cv ‘Badami-Zarand’)

(2002) Acta Horticulturae, 591, pp. 327-331. Cited 3 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-70350288963&doi=10.17660%2fActaHortic.2002.591.50&partnerID=40&md5=a1244766cce98bad8367275907fa886e

DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2002.591.50

AFFILIATIONS: Iranian Pistachio Research Institute (IPRI), P.O.Box 77175-435, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: The effect of various concentrations of auxin and different basal culture media on the rooting of pistachio micro-shoots were investigated. The results showed that microshoots cultured on half strength DKW medium supplemented with 2 mg/l IBA plus 0.01 mg/l NAA gave 100% rooting and was the best treatment. Rooted-shoots were readily established in peat: perlite (1:1) mixture and plantlets were acclimatized to the natural environment successfully.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Mehrnejad, M.R., Ueckermann, E.A.

Phytophagous and predatory mites of pistachio trees in Iran

(2002) Acta Horticulturae, 591, pp. 545-547. Cited 4 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-11944275522&doi=10.17660%2fActaHortic.2002.591.84&partnerID=40&md5=16118d76778a42e3cd52d72b6cc28fb7

DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2002.591.84

AFFILIATIONS: Pistachio Research Institute, P O Box 77175.435, Rafsanjan, Iran;

ARC-Plant Protection Research Institute, Private Bag X134, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa

ABSTRACT: A survey of mites on pistachio trees, Pistacia vera (L.) and P. mutica Fisher & Meyer, was conducted in the major pistachio growing regions of Iran (Kerman province) during the period 1991-1994. Eleven species of phytophagous and predatory mites were found on the aerial parts of the pistachio trees. The most injurious mites are Aceria pistaciae (Nalepa), Aceria stefanii (Nalepa), and Tenuipalpus granati Sayed. Furthermore, the phytophagous mites Cenopalpus irani (Dosse) and Brevipalpus sp. (near bagdasariani) were also observed on the leaves and twigs of the pistachio trees. Four species of predatory mites, namely, Abrolophus sp., Anystis baccarum (L.), Paraseiulus porosus Kolodochka, and Phytoseius corniger Wainstein were mainly found in colonies of the common pistachio psylla (Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt & Lauterer), while two other species, Cheletogenes ornatus (Can. & Fanz.) and Neophyllobius pistaciae Bolland & Mehrnejad, were encountered in pistachio scale insect colonies (Pistaciaspis pistaciae Archan and Salisicola davatchii Bala & Kauss).

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Talaie, A., Panahi, B.

Pistachio growing in Iran

(2002) Acta Horticulturae, 591, pp. 133-138. Cited 3 times.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84879680546&doi=10.17660%2fActaHortic.2002.591.17&partnerID=40&md5=0d7ecc70fb043a56dd8a7f75384158f7

DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2002.591.17

AFFILIATIONS: Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran;

Pistachio Research Institute, P.O Box 77175-435, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.), one of the most important horticultural products of Iran, has been planted widely in the province of Kerman, the main area for pistachio production. The province of Kerman, especially the Rafsanjan region, has the largest number of different varieties with recognizable characteristics in cultivation and use, compared with other areas of Iran, or with any other country. Iran has always been the main pistachio exporter in the world. Recently, pistachio tree planting is increasing in the country. The pistachio production practices are intensive, including pollination, irrigation, nutrition and control of pests and diseases. Pistachio harvesting, processing, grading, packing, and storage are reviewed in detail.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Panahi, B., Talaie, A.

Survey and characterization of pistachio germplasm in Iran

(2002) Acta Horticulturae, 591, pp. 263-264.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84879610103&doi=10.17660%2fActaHortic.2002.591.39&partnerID=40&md5=8b920299f5a108f26b796e5e74f25d75

DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2002.591.39

AFFILIATIONS: Pistachio Research Institute, P.O Box 77175-435, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

ABSTRACT: Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) has been grown from seed for centuries in Iran. Since heterozygosity is expected from sexual propagation of pistachio, wide variability is observed as diverse populations are obtained. Thus, Iran holds one of the most important origins of genetic resources of diversity for pistachio. The objectives of this survey were to evaluate the distribution of wild and cultivated pistachio and characterize some local pistachio cultivars. Field samples of various local cultivars were characterized for further selection and conservation purposes.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Vatanpour-Azghandi, A., Villiers, T.A., Ghorbani, A.M., Tajabadi, A.

The microscopy of tissue decolouration and browning problem in pistachio callus cultures

(2002) Acta Horticulturae, 591, pp. 377-388.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84879649796&doi=10.17660%2fActaHortic.2002.591.58&partnerID=40&md5=229962d0cbaffa2c1a7692fcfec9dcaa

DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2002.591.58

AFFILIATIONS: Iranian Pistachio Research Institute (I.P.R.I.), P.O. Box 77175-435, Rafsanjan, Iran;

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Salford, Salford M5 4WT, United Kingdom

ABSTRACT: Browning of the pistachio explants, older callus growth and the culture medium around the explants was found to be a problem in our study, during both the callus initiation stage and during callus proliferation and growth. Since there is no direct published information available, it was therefore considered interesting to obtain some basic information on the origin, intercellular distribution, and destination of polyphenolics during callus formation of pistachio (P. vera cv ‘Ghazvini’). Specimens from pistachio leaf explants before and after culture on callus induction medium and at about 10 day intervals were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde, embedded in Spurr resin, sectioned using an L.K.B. ultramicrotome, and stained following standard procedures. The observations showed that in both the cells of the original leaf explants and in callus cells, dense granular deposits appeared within the cell cytoplasm. It was found that the vacuoles of many adjacent cells had become heavily loaded with electron-dense polyphenolic deposits. The movement of polyphenolic deposits from cytoplasm into the main vacuole was evident, where they became closely associated with the inner face of the vacuole membrane and later occurred as large masses within each vacuole. The polyphenolic pigments were never seen free in the cytoplasm, but appeared to be formed, deposited, or at least became concentrated into dense masses within vacuoles, or in vesicles which became assimilated into the cell vacuole. The phenolic material was never seen to be discharging from either the vacuole into the cytoplasm, or passing from any cell to the exterior. The tissues in which the cell developed these deposits had fewer cell divisions, divided without separation of cells, and with little or no cell enlargement.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus

Sheibani, A., Azghandi, A., Esmailpour, A., Rohani, N.

Characteristics of selected pistachio cultivars in Iran

(1997) Acta Horticulturae, 441, pp. 125-128.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84879194681&doi=10.17660%2fActaHortic.1997.441.15&partnerID=40&md5=b099b012877ec3f8905453004494a929

DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.1997.441.15

AFFILIATIONS: Pistachio Research Institute, P.O. Box 77175/435, Rafsanjan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Pistachio is one of the most important horticultural plants in Iran. Quality and yield of cultivars are two very important factors in production. Experiments were conducted on the selection of varieties in the gene bank collection of pistachio during 4 years in Rafsanjan. Time of flowering and harvesting, and quality and quantity of nuts were recorded, and cultivars adapted to the environmental conditions of the Rafsanjan region have been selected.

DOCUMENT TYPE: Conference Paper

PUBLICATION STAGE: Final

SOURCE: Scopus